Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Search

Page Path
HOME > Search
467 "Hepatocellular"
Filter
Filter
Article category
Publication year
Original Articles
Recent update of proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Sun Hyun Bae, Won Il Jang, Hanna Rahbek Mortensen, Britta Weber, Mi Sook Kim, Morten Høyer
Received May 16, 2024  Accepted June 26, 2024  Published online July 4, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.06.26    [Accepted]
  • 417 Views
  • 15 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Backgrounds/Aims
Although access to proton beam therapy (PBT) is limited worldwide, its use for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is gradually increasing with the expansion of new facilities. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the updated evidence of PBT for HCC.
Methods
The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies that enrolled patients with liver-confined HCC that were treated with PBT for a cure up to February 2024.
Results
A total of 1858 HCC patients receiving PBT from 22 studies between 2004 and 2023 were selected for this meta-analysis. The median proportion of Child-Pugh class A was 86% (range: 41–100%), and the median tumor size was 3.6 cm (range: 1.2–9 cm). The median total dose ranged from 55 GyE to 76 GyE (median, 69 GyE). The pooled rates of 3- and 5-year local progression-free survival after PBT were 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85–91%) and 86% (95% CI, 82–90%), respectively. The pooled 3- and 5-year overall rates were 60% (95% CI, 54–66%) and 46% (95% CI, 38–54%), respectively. The pooled rates of grade 3 hepatic toxicity, classic radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), and non-classic RILD were 1%, 2%, and 1%, respectively.
Conclusions
The current study supports PBT for HCC and demonstrates favorable long-term survival and low hepatic toxicities compared with other published studies on other radiotherapy modalities. However, further studies are needed to identify the subgroups that will benefit from PBT.
Close layer
Assessment of Real-Time US-CT/MR-guided Percutaneous Gold Fiducial Marker Implementation in Malignant Hepatic Tumors for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
Sungjun Hwang, Seok-Joo Chun, Eui Kyu Chie, Jeong Min Lee
Received March 20, 2024  Accepted June 2, 2024  Published online June 10, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.06.03    [Accepted]
  • 462 Views
  • 13 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/Aims
This study explored the initial institutional experience of using gold fiducial markers for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in treating malignant hepatic tumors using real-time ultrasound-computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging fusion-guided percutaneous placement.
Methods
From May 2021 to August 2023, 19 patients with 25 liver tumors that were invisible on pre-contrast CT received fiducial markers following these guidelines. Postprocedural scans were used to confirm their placement. We assessed technical and clinical success rates and monitored complications. The implantation of fiducial markers facilitating adequate treatment prior to SBRT, which was achieved in 96% of the cases (24 of 25 tumors), was considered technical success. Clinical success was the successful completion of SBRT without evidence of marker displacement and was achieved in 88% of cases (22 of 25 tumors). Complications included one major subcapsular hematoma and marker migration into the right atrium in two cases, which prevented SBRT.
Results
Among the treated tumors, 83.3% (20 of 24) showed a complete response, 12.5% (3 of 24) remained stable, and 4.2% (1 of 24) progressed during an average 11.7-month follow-up (range, 2–32 months).
Conclusions
This study confirms that percutaneous gold fiducial marker placement using real-time CT/MR guidance is effective and safe for SBRT in hepatic tumors, but warns of marker migration risks, especially near the hepatic veins and in subcapsular locations. Using fewer markers than traditionally recommended—typically two per patient), the outcomes were still satisfactory, particularly given the increased risk of migration when markers were placed near major hepatic veins.
Close layer
Heavy Smoking Increases Early Mortality Risk in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Curative Treatment
Jaejun Lee, Jong Young Choi, Soon Kyu Lee
Received April 24, 2024  Accepted June 2, 2024  Published online June 7, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.06.02    [Accepted]
  • 573 Views
  • 31 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Although cigarette smoking has been associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its association with HCC mortality remains underexplored. We aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on early mortality in HCC patients following curative treatment.
Methods
Data from the Korean Primary Liver Cancer Registry were examined for HCC patients who underwent liver resection or radiofrequency ablation between 2015 and 2018. Smoking cumulative dose was assessed in pack-years. The primary outcome was the 3-year overall survival (OS).
Results
Among 1924 patients, 161 were classified as heavy smokers (≥ 40 pack-years). Heavy smokers exhibited a lower 3-year survival rate (77.1 %) than nonsmokers (83.3%), with a significant difference observed in the 3-year OS (p = 0.016). The assessment of smoking packyears in relation to 3-year OS revealed a dose-dependent pattern, with the hazard ratio exceeding 1.0 at 20 pack-years and continuing to rise until 40 pack-years, reaching peak at 1.21 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.45). Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed heavy smoking, age ≥ 60 y, underlying cirrhosis, tumor size > 3 cm, vascular invasion, and Child-Pugh class B/C as risk factors for 3-year OS. Subgroup analyses of patients with a tumor size < 3 cm, absence of vascular invasion, and meeting the Milan criteria also showed inferior outcomes for heavy smokers in all three subgroups.
Conclusion
Heavy smoking, defined as a history of > 40 pack-years, was linked to poorer 3-year survival outcomes in HCC patients undergoing curative treatments, underscoring the importance of smoking cessation in this population.
Close layer
Role of transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastases in the era of advancing systemic therapy
Byeong Geun Song, Myung Ji Goh, Wonseok Kang, Dong Hyun Sinn, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Joon Hyeok Lee, Moon Seok Choi
Received March 5, 2024  Accepted May 26, 2024  Published online June 3, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.05.26    [Accepted]
  • 550 Views
  • 33 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/Aims
Systemic therapy is the current standard treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extrahepatic metastases (EHM). However, some patients with HCC and EHM undergo transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) to manage intrahepatic tumors. Herein, we aimed to explore the appropriateness of TACE in patients with HCC and EHM in an era of advanced systemic therapy.
Methods
This study analyzed 248 consecutive patients with HCC and EHM (median age 58.5 years, 83.5% male, and 88.7% Child-Pugh A) who received TACE or systemic therapy (83 sorafenib, 49 lenvatinib, 28 immunotherapy-based) between January 2018 and January 2021.
Results
Among the patients, 196 deaths were recorded during a median follow-up of 8.9 months. Patients who received systemic therapy had a higher albumin-bilirubin grade, elevated tumor markers, an increased number of intrahepatic tumors, larger-sized tumors, and more frequent portal vein invasion than those who underwent TACE. TACE was associated with longer median overall survival (OS) than sorafenib (15.1 vs. 4.7 months; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.1–22.2 vs. 3.7–7.3; hazard ratio [HR] 1.97, P<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, TACE was associated with statistically similar survival outcomes to those of lenvatinib (median OS: 8.0 months; 95% CI: 6.5–11.0; HR 1.21, P=0.411) and immunotherapies (median OS: 14.3 months; 95% CI: 9.5–27.0; HR 1.01, P=0.973), demonstrating survival benefits equivalent to these treatments.
Conclusion
In patients with HCC and EHM, TACE can provide a survival benefit comparable to that of newer systemic therapies. Accordingly, TACE remains a valuable option in this era of new systemic therapies.
Close layer
Downstaging with Atezolizumab-Bevacizumab: A Case Series
Anand V. Kulkarni, Kumaraswamy P, Balachandran Menon, Anuradha Sekaran, Anuhya Rambhatl, Sowmya Iyengar, Manasa Alla, Shantan Venishetty, Sumana Kolar Ramachandra, Premkumar G V, Mithun Sharma, P. N Rao, Duvvur Nageshwar Reddy, Amit G. Singal
Received April 3, 2024  Accepted May 12, 2024  Published online May 27, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.05.12    [Accepted]
  • 1,038 Views
  • 138 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/aims
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is generally diagnosed at an advanced stage, which limits curative treatment options for these patients. Locoregional therapy (LRT) is the standard approach to bridge and downstage unresectable HCC (uHCC) for liver transplantation (LT). Atezolizumab-bevacizumab (atezo-bev) can induce objective responses in nearly one-third of patients; however, the role and outcomes of downstaging using atezobev remains unknown.
Methods
In this retrospective single-center study, we included consecutive patients between November 2020 and August 2023, who received atezo-bev with or without LRT and were subsequently considered for resection/LT after downstaging.
Results
Of the 115 patients who received atezo-bev, 12 patients (10.4%) achieved complete or partial response and were willing to undergo LT; they (age: 58.5 years; women-17%; Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage System B/C:5/7) had received 3–12 cycles of atezo-bev, and 4 of them had received prior LRT. Three patients died before LT, while three were awaiting LT. Six patients underwent curative therapies: four underwent living donor LT after a median of 79.5 (54–114) days following the last atezo-bev dose, one underwent deceased donor LT 38 days after the last dose, and one underwent resection. All but one patient had complete pathologic response with no viable HCC. Three patients experienced wound healing complications, and one required re-exploration and succumbed to sepsis. After a median follow-up of 10 (4–30) months, none of the alive patients developed HCC recurrence or graft rejection.
Conclusions
Surgical therapy, including LT, is possible after atezo-bev therapy in wellselected patients after downstaging.
Close layer
Superselective Ablative Chemo-ethanol Embolization for Recurrent Single Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Six-Month Outcome Analysis
Jae Hwan Lee, Kun Yung Kim, Chong-ho Lee, Minuk Kim, Chang Jin Yoon
Received April 1, 2024  Accepted May 8, 2024  Published online May 14, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.05.08    [Accepted]
  • 454 Views
  • 29 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/Aim
To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of superselective ablative chemoethanol embolization (SACE) for the treatment of patients with recurrent single hepatocellular carcinoma (rHCC).
Materials and Methods
This retrospective study included 22 patients (19 men, median age 63 [range 38-86 y]) with Child-Pugh class of A/B/C (16/3/3) that underwent SACE between January and June 2023 for recurrent single HCCs measuring ≤ 5 cm in diameter using a mixture of 99% Ethanol and ethiodized oil/doxorubicin emulsion. The primary endpoint was the 6-month tumor response, and the secondary endpoints were the 1-month tumor response and treatment-related safety. This study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived.
Results
SACE was successfully performed in 22 (95.2%) patients. The complete response rates at 1-month and 6-month after treatment were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. At 6-month, local tumor progression occurred in one patient and intrahepatic distant metastasis was found in 6 (30%) patients. No 6-month mortalities were reported. No adverse events greater than grade 2 or laboratory deteriorations were observed. Biliary complications or liver abscesses were not observed.
Conclusion
SACE for a single rHCC was highly effective in achieving a favorable 6-month tumor response and showed acceptable adverse events. However, further prospective studies are required to verify these findings.
Close layer
Re-assessing the diagnostic value of the enhancing “capsule” in hepatocellular carcinoma imaging
Jae Seok Bae, Jeong Min Lee, Bo Yun Hur, Jeongin Yoo, Sae-Jin Park
Received March 8, 2024  Accepted May 1, 2024  Published online May 8, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.05.01    [Accepted]
  • 1,069 Views
  • 19 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/Aims
The enhancing “capsule” (EC) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis has received varying degrees of recognition across major guidelines. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic utility of EC in HCC detection.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent pre-surgical computed tomography (CT) and hepatobiliary agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (HBA-MRI) between January 2016 and December 2019. A single hepatic tumor was confirmed based on the pathology of each patient. Three radiologists independently reviewed the images according to the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LIRADS) v2018 criteria and reached a consensus. Interobserver agreement for EC before reaching a consensus was quantified using Fleiss κ statistics. The impact of EC on the LI-RADS classification was assessed by comparing the positive predictive values for HCC detection in the presence and absence of EC.
Results
In total, 237 patients (median age, 60 years; 184 men) with 237 observations were included. The interobserver agreement for EC detection was notably low for CT (κ=0.169) and HBA-MRI (κ=0.138). The presence of EC did not significantly alter the positive predictive value for HCC detection in LI-RADS category 5 observations on CT (94.1% [80/85] vs. 94.6% [88/93], P=0.886) or HBA-MRI (95.7% [88/92] vs. 90.6% [77/85], P=0.178).
Conclusions
The diagnostic value of EC in HCC diagnosis remains questionable, given its poor interobserver agreement and negligible impact on positive predictive values for HCC detection. This study challenges the emphasis on EC in certain diagnostic guidelines and suggests the need to re-evaluate its role in HCC imaging.
Close layer
Inter-reader Agreement for CT/MRI LI-RADS Category M Imaging Features: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Dong Hwan Kim, Sang Hyun Choi
Received March 11, 2024  Accepted April 5, 2024  Published online April 15, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.04.05    [Accepted]
  • 1,094 Views
  • 36 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Backgrounds/Aims
To systematically evaluate inter-reader agreement in the assessment of individual Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) category M (LR-M) imaging features in computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) LI-RADS v2018, and to explore the causes of poor agreement in LR-M assignment.
Methods
Original studies reporting inter-reader agreement for LR-M features on multiphasic CT or MRI were identified using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The pooled kappa coefficient (κ) was calculated using the DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran’s Q test and I2 statistics. Subgroup meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore the study heterogeneity.
Results
In total, 24 eligible studies with 5,163 hepatic observations were included. The pooled κ values were 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.78) for rim arterial phase hyperenhancement, 0.52 (0.39–0.65) for peripheral washout, 0.60 (0.50–0.70) for delayed central enhancement, 0.68 (0.57–0.78) for targetoid restriction, 0.74 (0.65–0.83) for targetoid transitional phase/hepatobiliary phase appearance, 0.64 (0.49–0.78) for infiltrative appearance, 0.49 (0.30–0.68) for marked diffusion restriction, and 0.61 (0.48–0.73) for necrosis or severe ischemia. Substantial study heterogeneity was observed for all LR-M features (Cochran's Q test: p < 0.01; I2 ≥ 89.2%). Studies with a mean observation size of <3 cm, those performed using 1.5-T MRI, and those with multiple image readers, were significantly associated with poor agreement of LR-M features.
Conclusions
The agreement for peripheral washout and marked diffusion restriction was limited. The LI-RADS should focus on improving the agreement of LR-M features.
Close layer
Outcomes of Liver Resection and Transarterial Chemoembolization in Patients with Multinodular BCLC-A Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Jiwon Yang, Won-Mook Choi, Danbi Lee, Ju Hyun Shim, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Han Chu Lee, Deok-Bog Moon, Dong-Hwan Jung, Jonggi Choi
Received March 3, 2024  Accepted March 25, 2024  Published online April 3, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.03.25    [Accepted]
  • 749 Views
  • 51 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to compare the outcomes of liver resection (LR) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria who were not eligible for liver transplantation.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 483 patients with multinodular HCC within the Milan criteria, who underwent either LR or TACE as an initial therapy between 2013 and 2022. The overall survival (OS) in the entire population and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients who underwent LR and TACE and achieved a complete response were analyzed. Propensity score (PS) matching analysis was also used for a fair comparison of outcomes between the two groups.
Results
Among the 483 patients, 107 (22.2%) and 376 (77.8%) underwent LR and TACE, respectively. The median size of the largest tumor was 2.0 cm, and 72.3% of the patients had two HCC lesions. The median OS and RFS were significantly longer in the LR group than in the TACE group (p <0.01 for both). In the multivariate analysis, TACE (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.81 and aHR, 2.41) and large tumor size (aHR, 1.43 and aHR, 1.44) were significantly associated with worse OS and RFS, respectively. The PS-matched analysis also demonstrated that the LR group had significantly longer OS and RFS than the TACE group (PS <0.05).
Conclusion
In this study, LR showed better OS and RFS than TACE in patients with multinodular Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC. Therefore, LR can be considered an effective treatment option for these patients.
Close layer
Review Articles
Advancing Korean nationwide registry for hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic sampling approach utilizing the Korea Central Cancer Registry database
Bo Hyun Kim, E Hwa Yun, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Geun Hong, Jun Yong Park, Ju Hyun Shim, Eunyang Kim, Hyun-Joo Kong, Kyu-Won Jung, Young-Suk Lim
J Liver Cancer. 2024;24(1):57-61.   Published online March 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.03.03
  • 1,019 Views
  • 38 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presents a substantial public health challenge in South Korea as evidenced by 10,565 new cases annually (incidence rate of 30 per 100,000 individuals), in 2020. Cancer registries play a crucial role in gathering data on incidence, disease attributes, etiology, treatment modalities, outcomes, and informing health policies. The effectiveness of a registry depends on the completeness and accuracy of data. Established in 1999 by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) is a comprehensive, legally mandated, nationwide registry that captures nearly all incidence and survival data for major cancers, including HCC, in Korea. However, detailed information on cancer staging, specific characteristics, and treatments is lacking. To address this gap, the KCCR, in partnership with the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA), has implemented a systematic approach to collect detailed data on HCC since 2010. This involved random sampling of 10-15% of all new HCC cases diagnosed since 2003. The registry process encompassed four stages: random case selection, meticulous data extraction by trained personnel, expert validation, anonymization of personal data, and data dissemination for research purposes. This random sampling strategy mitigates the biases associated with voluntary reporting and aligns with stringent privacy regulations. This innovative approach positions the KCCR and KLCA as foundations for advancing cancer control and shaping health policies in South Korea.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of modifiable metabolic risk factors and lifestyle with all-cause mortality in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Hwi Young Kim, Hye Ah Lee, Pompilia Radu, Jean-François Dufour
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Close layer
Changing etiology and epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma: Asia and worldwide
Do Young Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2024;24(1):62-70.   Published online March 25, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.03.13
  • 2,731 Views
  • 183 Downloads
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Approximately 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases arise in sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Asia, following a similarly high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers in these regions. The etiology and epidemiology of HCC have recently changed worldwide. Although HBV infection is the main contributor to HCC development, a slow but continuous decline in HBV infection rates has been reported since 1990. Owing to the widespread use of direct-acting antivirals, the incidence of hepatitis C virus-related HCC has remarkably decreased in Japan and European countries. In Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore, the incidence of HBV-related HCC has significantly decreased owing to vaccination against HBV. Globally, while HBV accounted for more than half of HCCs in 1990, this had decreased to 42% in 2019. In contrast, the proportion of patients with alcoholic- and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) increased from 13% to 18% and from 5% to 6%, respectively. NASH-related HCC has characteristics that differ from those of virus-associated HCC. Compared with other etiologies, patients with NASHassociated HCC are older, have a higher body mass index, and have higher rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-associated HCC is also known to develop in the absence of cirrhosis, unlike alcohol-related and autoimmune liver diseases. Because patients with NAFLD usually have diabetes or obesity, surveying this population is challenging. Optimal selection of the target population and surveillance tools among patients with NAFLD needs to be determined.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Immunotherapy as a Complement to Surgical Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Susan J. Kim, Kaelyn C. Cummins, Allan Tsung
    Cancers.2024; 16(10): 1852.     CrossRef
  • Inflammatory Response in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Double-Edged Weapon
    Linda Galasso, Lucia Cerrito, Valeria Maccauro, Fabrizio Termite, Irene Mignini, Giorgio Esposto, Raffaele Borriello, Maria Elena Ainora, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maria Assunta Zocco
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(13): 7191.     CrossRef
Close layer
Multidisciplinary approach for hepatocellular carcinoma patients: current evidence and future perspectives
Joo Hyun Oh, Dong Hyun Sinn
J Liver Cancer. 2024;24(1):47-56.   Published online March 25, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.02.27
  • 1,436 Views
  • 89 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is challenging due to the complex relationship between underlying liver disease, tumor burden, and liver function. HCC is also notorious for its high recurrence rate even after curative treatment for early-stage tumor. Liver transplantation can substantially alter patient prognosis, but donor availability varies by each patient which further complicates treatment decision. Recent advancements in HCC treatments have introduced numerous potentially efficacious treatment modalities. However, high level evidence comparing the risks and benefits of these options is limited. In this complex situation, multidisciplinary approach or multidisciplinary team care has been suggested as a valuable strategy to help cope with escalating complexity in HCC management. Multidisciplinary approach involves collaboration among medical and health care professionals from various academic disciplines to provide comprehensive care. Although evidence suggests that multidisciplinary care can enhance outcomes of HCC patients, robust data from randomized controlled trials are currently lacking. Moreover, the implementation of a multidisciplinary approach necessitates increased medical resources compared to conventional cancer care. This review summarizes the current evidence on the role of multidisciplinary approach in HCC management and explores potential future directions.
Close layer
Current perspectives on radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma management: a comprehensive review
Dowook Kim, Jun-Sang Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2024;24(1):33-46.   Published online March 25, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.02.26
  • 1,546 Views
  • 98 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
This review examines the transformative role of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in managing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), spotlighting the progression from traditional EBRT techniques to advanced modalities like intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT), stereotactic body RT (SBRT), and innovative particle therapy, including proton beam therapy and carbon ion RT. These advancements have significantly improved the precision and efficacy of RT, marking a paradigm shift in the multimodal management of HCC, particularly in addressing complex cases and enhancing local tumor control. The review underscores the synergistic potential of integrating RT with other treatments like transarterial chemoembolization, systemic therapies such as sorafenib, and emerging immunotherapies, illustrating enhanced survival and disease control outcomes. The efficacy of RT is addressed for challenging conditions, including advanced HCC with macrovascular invasion, and RT modalities, like SBRT, are compared against traditional treatments like radiofrequency ablation for early-stage HCC. Additionally, the review accentuates the encouraging outcomes of particle therapy in enhancing local control and survival rates, minimizing treatment-related toxicity, and advocating for continued research and clinical trials. In conclusion, the integration of RT into multimodal HCC treatment strategies, coupled with the emergence of particle therapy, is crucial for advancing oncologic management, emphasizing the need for relentless innovation and personalized treatment approaches.
Close layer
Intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: refining substaging or shifting paradigm?
Bernardo Stefanini, Luca Ielasi, Dante Pio Pallotta, Sofia Penazza, Mariarosaria Marseglia, Fabio Piscaglia
J Liver Cancer. 2024;24(1):23-32.   Published online March 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.02.21
  • 1,511 Views
  • 91 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
This review explores the evolution of cancer staging, focusing on intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the challenges faced by physicians. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, introduced in 1999, was designed to address the limitations associated with providing accurate prognostic information for HCC and allocating specific treatments, to avoid overtreatment. However, criticism has emerged, particularly regarding the intermediate stage of HCC (BCLC-B) and its heterogeneous patient population. To overcome this limitation, various subclassification systems, such as the Bolondi and Kinki criteria, have been proposed. These systems are aimed at refining categorizations within the intermediate stage and have demonstrated varying degrees of success in predicting outcomes through external validation. This study discusses the shift in treatment paradigms, emphasizing the need for a more personalized approach rather than strictly adhering to cancer stages, without dismissing the relevance of staging systems. It assesses the available treatment options for intermediate-stage HCC, highlighting the importance of considering surgical and nonsurgical options alongside transarterial chemoembolization for optimal outcomes. In conclusion, the text advocates for a paradigm shift in staging systems prioritizing treatment suitability over cancer stage. This reflects the evolving landscape of HCC management, where a multidisciplinary approach is crucial for tailoring treatments to individual patients, ultimately aiming to improve overall survival.
Close layer
Complications of immunotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma
Young-Gi Song, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2024;24(1):9-16.   Published online November 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.11.21
  • 2,109 Views
  • 122 Downloads
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are highly effective in cancer treatment. However, the risks associated with the treatment must be carefully balanced against the therapeutic benefits. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are generally unpredictable and may persist over an extended period. In this review, we analyzed common irAEs reported in highly cited original articles and systematic reviews. The prevalent adverse reactions include fatigue, pyrexia, rash, pruritus, diarrhea, decreased appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, hepatitis, and hypothyroidism. Therefore, it is crucial to conduct evaluations not only of gastrointestinal organs but also of cardiac, neurologic, endocrine (including the frequently affected thyroid), and ophthalmic systems before commencing ICIs. This review further explores commonly reported types of irAEs, specific irAEs associated with each ICI agent, rare yet potentially fatal irAEs, and available treatment options for managing them.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Intrahepatic IgA complex induces polarization of cancer-associated fibroblasts to matrix phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment of HCC
    Jong Geun Park, Pu Reun Roh, Min Woo Kang, Sung Woo Cho, Suhyun Hwangbo, Hae Deok Jung, Hyun Uk Kim, Ji Hoon Kim, Jae-Sung Yoo, Ji Won Han, Jeong Won Jang, Jong Young Choi, Seung Kew Yoon, Young Kyoung You, Ho Joong Choi, Jae Yong Ryu, Pil Soo Sung
    Hepatology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk of Bleeding in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Atezolizumab/Bevacizumab: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Young-Gi Song, Kyeong-Min Yeom, Eun Ae Jung, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Jeong-Ju Yoo
    Liver Cancer.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
Close layer

JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer