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Review Article Complications of immunotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma
Young-Gi Songorcid , Jeong-Ju Yooorcid , Sang Gyune Kimorcid , Young Seok Kimorcid

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.11.21 [Accepted]
Published online: November 29, 2023
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Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Soonchunhyang University School of Medicine, Bucheon, South Korea
Corresponding author:  Jeong-Ju Yoo, Tel: +82-32-621-5215, Fax: +82-32-621-6079, 
Email: puby17@naver.com
Received: 16 October 2023   • Revised: 14 November 2023   • Accepted: 21 November 2023

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are highly effective in cancer treatment; however, the risks associated with the treatment must be carefully balanced against the therapeutic benefits. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are generally unpredictable and may persist over an extended period. In this review, we analyzed common irAEs reported in highly cited original articles and systematic reviews. The prevalent adverse reactions include fatigue, pyrexia, rash, pruritus, diarrhea, decreased appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, hepatitis, and hypothyroidism. Therefore, it is crucial to conduct evaluations not only of gastrointestinal organs but also of cardiac, neurologic, endocrine (including the frequently affected thyroid), and ophthalmic systems before commencing ICIs. This review further explores commonly reported types of irAEs, specific irAEs associated with each ICI agent, rare yet potentially fatal irAEs, and available treatment options for managing them.


JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer