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From articles published in Journal of Liver Cancer during the past two years (2021 ~ ).

Original Article
Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Korea: an Analysis of the 2015 Korean Nationwide Cancer Registry
Jun Sik Yoon, Han Ah Lee, Hwi Young Kim, Dong Hyun Sinn, Dong Ho Lee, Suk Kyun Hong, Ju-Yeon Cho, Jonggi Choi, Young Chang, Hyun-Joo Kong, Eunyang Kim, Young-Joo Won, Jeong-Hoon Lee
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(1):58-68.   Published online March 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.21.1.58
Retraction in: J Liver Cancer 2022;22(2):207
  • 3,011 Views
  • 180 Downloads
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Korea. This study evaluated the characteristics of Korean patients newly diagnosed with HCC in 2015.
Methods
Data from the Korean Primary Liver Cancer Registry (KPLCR), a representative sample of patients newly diagnosed with HCC in Korea, were analyzed. A total of 1,558 patients with HCC registered in the KPLCR in 2015 were investigated.
Results
The median age was 61.0 years (interquartile range, 54.0-70.0 years), and men accounted for 79.7% of the subjects. Hepatitis B virus infection was the most common underlying liver disease (58.1%). According to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, stage 0, A, B, C, and D HCCs accounted for 14.2%, 31.5%, 7.6%, 39.0%, and 7.8% of patients, respectively. Transarterial therapy (32.1%) was the most commonly performed initial treatment, followed by surgical resection (23.2%), best supportive care (20.2%), and local ablation therapy (10.7%). Overall, 34.5% of patients were treated in accordance with the BCLC guidelines: 59.2% in stage 0/A, 48.4% in stage B, 18.1% in stage C, and 71.6% in stage D. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 67.1%, 50.9%, and 27.0%, respectively.
Conclusions
In 2015, approximately 45% of Korean HCC cases were diagnosed at a very early or early stage, and 35% of patients underwent potentially curative initial treatment. BCLC guidance was followed in 34.5% of patients; in patients with stage B or C disease, there was relatively low adherence.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Surgical resection versus ablation for early hepatocellular carcinoma: The debate is still open
    Bo Hyun Kim
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2022; 28(2): 174.     CrossRef
  • Cause of death and cause-specific mortality for primary liver cancer in South Korea: A nationwide population-based study in hepatitis B virus-endemic area
    Bo Hyun Kim, Dahhay Lee, Kyu-Won Jung, Young-Joo Won, Hyunsoon Cho
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2022; 28(2): 242.     CrossRef
  • Impact of tumor size on hepatectomy outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma: a nationwide propensity score matching analysis
    Suk Kyun Hong, Kwang-Woong Lee, Sola Lee, Su young Hong, Sanggyun Suh, Eui Soo Han, YoungRok Choi, Nam-Joon Yi, Kyung-Suk Suh
    Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research.2022; 102(4): 193.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and feasibility of surgery and external radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal invasion: A meta-analysis
    Han Ah Lee, Yeon Seok Seo, In-Soo Shin, Won Sup Yoon, Hye Yoon Lee, Chai Hong Rim
    International Journal of Surgery.2022; 104: 106753.     CrossRef
  • Yoon et al. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Korea: an Analysis of the 2015 Korean Nationwide Cancer Registry
    Jeong-Hoon Lee
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2022; 22(2): 207.     CrossRef
  • Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma: It is time to move forward
    Bo Hyun Kim, Yuri Cho, Joong-Won Park
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2022; 28(4): 810.     CrossRef
  • Treatment patterns for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with Child–Pugh class B and their impact on survival: A Korean nationwide registry study
    Dongsub Jeon, Gi‐Won Song, Han Chu Lee, Ju Hyun Shim
    Liver International.2022; 42(12): 2830.     CrossRef
  • Metastatic breast cancer from a hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report
    Hyewon Bang, Nam-Hee Kim, Seung Hye Choi, Si Hyun Bae, Eun Sun Jung, Ki Ouk Min, Yong Hwa Eom
    Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology.2022; 18(2): 93.     CrossRef
  • Current Status and Future Directions of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Test Based on Cost-effective Analysis
    Jihyun An
    The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology.2021; 78(5): 255.     CrossRef
Review Articles
A clinical and pathological update on hepatocellular carcinoma
Salvatore Lorenzo Renne, Luca Di Tommaso
J Liver Cancer. 2022;22(1):14-22.   Published online March 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2022.03.18
  • 2,651 Views
  • 189 Downloads
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
It is estimated that more than 1 million individuals will be affected annually by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by 2025. HCC can be broadly grouped into two major molecular subgroups, each of which is characterized by specific morphological and phenotypic features that mirror the genetic background. The use of these tissue biomarkers in the daily practice of pathologists promises to better allocate patients with HCC with adequate treatments. In turn, this will likely boost the attitude of clinicians toward obtaining a pre-treatment biopsy.

Citations

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  • Identification of gallbladder cancer by direct near-infrared measurement of raw bile combined with two-trace two-dimensional correlation analysis
    Eunjin Jang, Woosuk Sohng, Dongho Choi, Hoeil Chung
    The Analyst.2023; 148(2): 374.     CrossRef
  • Measurement of Heavy Metal and Antioxidant-Oxidant Levels in Tissues Obtained From Three Different Localizations of Explant Hepatectomy of Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Cemalettin Koc, Sami Akbulut, Kemal Baris Sarici, Muhammed Mehdi Uremis, Ufuk Gunay Dogan, Zeynep Kucukakcali, Ibrahim Umar Garzali, Ertugrul Karabulut, Yusuf Turkoz, Sezai Yilmaz
    Transplantation Proceedings.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Ras Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Kinase Suppressor of Ras as Therapeutic Targets for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hyuk Moon, Simon Weonsang Ro
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(1):1-11.   Published online March 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.21.1.1
  • 2,984 Views
  • 150 Downloads
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a high incidence cancer and a major health concern worldwide. Among the many molecular signaling pathways that are dysregulated in HCC, the Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/Raf/MAPK) signaling pathway has gained renewed attention from basic and clinical researchers. Mutations in Ras and Raf genes which are known to activate the Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway have been infrequently detected in human HCC; however, the Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway is activated in more than 50% of HCC cases, suggesting an alternative mechanism for the activation of the signaling pathway. Kinase suppressor of Ras acts as a molecular scaffold for facilitating the assembly of Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway components and has been implicated in the regulation of this signaling pathway. In this review, we provide important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the activation of the Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway and discuss potential therapeutic strategies for HCC.

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  • Network-Pharmacology-Based Study on Active Phytochemicals and Molecular Mechanism of Cnidium monnieri in Treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Shakeel Ahmad Khan, Terence Kin Wah Lee
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(10): 5400.     CrossRef
  • Identification of potential target genes of honokiol in overcoming breast cancer resistance to tamoxifen
    Adam Hermawan, Herwandhani Putri, Naufa Hanif, Nurul Fatimah, Heri Himawan Prasetio
    Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Effect of direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and death after curative treatment
Young-Hwan Ahn, Heirim Lee, Ji Eun Han, Hyo Jung Cho, Jae Youn Cheong, Bumhee Park, Soon Sun Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2022;22(2):125-135.   Published online June 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2022.05.24
  • 858 Views
  • 42 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
/Aim: There has been a long-standing debate about the association of directacting antiviral (DAA) therapy and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. This study aimed to investigate the association between DAA therapy and HCC recurrence after curative therapy.
Methods
We retrospectively enrolled 1,021 patients with HCV-related (hepatitis C virus) HCC who underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA), liver resection, or both as the first treatment modality from January 2007 to December 2016 and without a history of HCV therapy before HCC treatment from a nationwide database. The effect of HCV treatment on HCC recurrence and all-cause mortality was also investigated.
Results
Among the 1,021 patients, 77 (7.5%) were treated with DAA, 14 (1.4%) were treated with interferon-based therapy, and 930 (91.1%) did not receive HCV therapy. DAA therapy was an independent prognostic factor for lower HCC recurrence rate (hazard ratio [HR], 0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.006-0.289; P=0.001 for landmarks at 6 months after HCC treatment and HR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.007-0.354; P=0.003 for landmarks at 1 year). Furthermore, DAA therapy was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.049; 95% CI, 0.007-0.349; P=0.003 for landmarks at 6 months and HR, 0.063; 95% CI, 0.009-0.451; P=0.006 for landmarks at 1 year).
Conclusions
DAA therapy after curative HCC treatment can decrease HCC recurrence and all-cause mortality compared to interferon-based therapy or no antiviral therapy. Therefore, clinicians should consider administering DAA therapy after curative HCC treatment in patients with HCV-related HCC.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Is direct-acting antiviral treatment beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma?
    Hye Won Lee
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2022; 22(2): 91.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Long-term survival after CCRT and HAIC followed by ALPPS for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein invasion: a case report
In-Jung Kim, Sung Hwan Yoo, Jung Il Lee, Kwan Sik Lee, Hyun Woong Lee, Jin Hong Lim
J Liver Cancer. 2022;22(1):84-90.   Published online March 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2022.03.07
  • 1,200 Views
  • 45 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
There are various methods for treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein invasion, such as systemic chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial radioembolization, and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. These methods have similar clinical efficacy but are designed with a palliative aim. Herein, we report a case that experienced complete remission through “associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS)” after concurrent chemoradiotherapy and hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy. In this patient, concurrent chemoradiotherapy and hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy induced substantial tumor shrinkage, and hypertrophy of the nontumor liver was sufficiently induced by portal vein ligation (stage 1 surgery) followed by curative resection (stage 2 surgery). Using this approach, long-term survival with no evidence of recurrence was achieved at 16 months. Therefore, the optimal use of ALPPS requires sufficient consideration in cases of significant hepatocellular carcinoma shrinkage for curative purposes.

Citations

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  • Is multidisciplinary treatment effective for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus?
    Won Hyeok Choe
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2022; 22(1): 1.     CrossRef
Concurrent transarterial radioembolization and combination atezolizumab/ bevacizumab treatment of infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis: a case report
Min Kyung Park, Su Jong Yu
J Liver Cancer. 2022;22(1):69-74.   Published online March 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2022.03.09
  • 1,601 Views
  • 52 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Treatment options for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been rapidly evolving. Herein, we describe a patient with advanced HCC and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) who responded decisively to a multidisciplinary approach. The patient had an ill-defined infiltrative HCC (diffuse subtype), with several intrahepatic metastasis and tumor invasion of left portal vein. Concurrent use of transarterial radioembolization (TARE) and systemic therapeutics (atezolizumab + bevacizumab) ultimately proved successful. There was marked reduction in tumor volume after TARE and an additional three cycles of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. This concurrent treatment was well tolerated, without adverse events during immunotherapy. The impressive results achieved suggest that concurrent TARE and combination atezolizumab/bevacizumab is a promising treatment approach for advanced HCC with PVTT.

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  • Is multidisciplinary treatment effective for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus?
    Won Hyeok Choe
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2022; 22(1): 1.     CrossRef
Multidisciplinary treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors for advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma
Ahlim Lee, Jaejun Lee, Hyun Yang, Soo-Yoon Sung, Chang Ho Jeon, Su Ho Kim, Moon Hyung Choi, Young Joon Lee, Ho Jong Chun, Si Hyun Bae
J Liver Cancer. 2022;22(1):75-83.   Published online March 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2022.03.04
  • 1,782 Views
  • 55 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cytotoxic chemotherapy-resistant tumor and most HCCs arise in a background of liver cirrhosis of various causes. Although the IMBrave150 trial showed remarkable advancements in the treatment of unresectable HCC with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (AteBeva), therapeutic outcomes were unsatisfactory in more than half of the patients. Accordingly, many ongoing trials combine conventional modalities with new drugs such as immune checkpoint inhibitors for better treatment outcomes, and they are expected to benefit patients with limited responses to conventional treatment. Here, two patients with advanced stage HCC with preserved liver function and good performance status showed partial response after treatment with combination or sequential therapy of AteBeva, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and transarterial chemoembolization. These findings indicate the efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment against advanced HCC. Additional studies are required to establish optimal treatment strategies.

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  • Is multidisciplinary treatment effective for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus?
    Won Hyeok Choe
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2022; 22(1): 1.     CrossRef
Sorafenib combined with radiation therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal and hepatic vein invasion extending to the inferior vena cava: a complete response case according to modified RECIST criteria
Yuri Cho, Bo Hyun Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Young Hwan Koh, Joong-Won Park
J Liver Cancer. 2022;22(1):63-68.   Published online February 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2022.01.18
  • 1,408 Views
  • 64 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
The prognosis of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with tumor thrombus extending to the inferior vena cava (IVC) is extremely poor. Herein, we present a rare case of advanced HCC that was treated with sorafenib and radiotherapy, leading to complete remission. This patient had a 9 cm infiltrative HCC occupying almost the entire left lobe with a tumor thrombus extending through the hepatic vein, IVC, and left portal vein. The patient received 400 mg sorafenib twice daily. One year after the start of sorafenib, intensity-modulated radiation therapy for viable HCC and tumor thrombus was performed with a dose of 5,500 cGy. Twenty-seven months after the starting date of sorafenib, there was no intratumoral arterial enhancement, which suggested a complete response according to the modified RECIST criteria. This case suggests that the combination of sorafenib and radiotherapy might provide clinical benefits in patients with advanced HCC with IVC tumor thrombus.

Citations

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  • Is multidisciplinary treatment effective for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus?
    Won Hyeok Choe
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2022; 22(1): 1.     CrossRef
Review Article
Systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: consideration for selecting second-line treatment
Bo Hyun Kim, Joong-Won Park
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(2):124-138.   Published online September 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2021.09.23
  • 2,107 Views
  • 87 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Several molecular-targeted agents have been tested as first- or second-line therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but failed to improve clinical outcomes; sorafenib has been the only approved systemic agent for treating HCC for almost 10 years. Regorafenib resulted in a significant improvement in overall survival and thus was approved for HCC patients previously treated with sorafenib. Subsequently, cabozantinib and ramucirumab demonstrated superior overall survival compared with placebos in phase III clinical trials. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab with or without ipilimumab and pembrolizumab are also available in some countries for patients who are unresponsive to sorafenib. Some second-line agents are available for patients who are unresponsive to sorafenib; however, little is known about the considerations for selecting appropriate secondline systemic agents. Hence, this study aimed to review the current and future perspectives of second-line systemic agents.

Citations

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  • Expert consensus on the management of adverse events in patients receiving lenvatinib for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Bo Hyun Kim, Su Jong Yu, Wonseok Kang, Sung Bum Cho, Soo Young Park, Seung Up Kim, Do Young Kim
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.2022; 37(3): 428.     CrossRef
Case Report
Primary multifocal cystic signet ring neuroendocrine tumor of liver: a case report
Nalini Bansal, Brahmananda Satapathy
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(2):187-193.   Published online September 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2021.09.17
  • 1,434 Views
  • 53 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary signet ring neuroendocrine tumors of the liver are extremely rare tumors. Morphologically, they mimic signet ring cell adenocarcinomas; however, the absence of mucin by special stains and the expression of neuroendocrine markers help to diagnose these tumors. We herein report a case of a 47-year-old female who presented with multiple solid and cystic lesions in both liver lobes, which were initially suggested to be biliary cystadenocarcinoma on imaging. Liver biopsy of the lesion revealed the presence of a signet ring neoplasm with diffuse expression of synaptophysin and pan-cytokeratin. The case was subsequently diagnosed as a primary hepatic signet ring neuroendocrine tumor. The patient was offered 3 cycles of chemotherapy and is well preserved after 14 months of diagnosis. Although this is an extremely rare entity, its possibility should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neoplasms characterized by signet ring cell morphology.

Citations

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  • HER-2-positive primary neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast with signet ring feature: A case report and review of literature
    Yunjin Li, Yi Cao, Xiaoying Wu, Ruijie Liu, Kuansong Wang
    Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review Articles
Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis
Sang Jin Kim, Jong Man Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(2):105-112.   Published online September 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2021.03.17
  • 2,902 Views
  • 140 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Traditionally, liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis is not recommended. However, with recent developments in locoregional therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma, more aggressive treatments have been attempted for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, various studies on locoregional therapies for downstaging followed by living donor liver transplantation reported inspiring overall survival and recurrence-free survival of patients. These downstaging procedures included three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, trans-arterial chemoembolization, stereotactic body radiation therapy, trans-arterial radioembolization, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and combinations of these therapies. Selection of the optimal downstaging protocol should depend on tumor location, biology and background liver status. The risk factors affecting outcome include pre-downstaging alpha-fetoprotein values, delta alpha-fetoprotein values, disappearance of portal vein tumor thrombosis on imaging and meeting the Milan criteria or not after downstaging. For hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis, downstaging procedure with liver transplantation in mind would be helpful. If the reaction of the downstaged tumor is good, liver transplantation may be performed.

Citations

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  • Prediction models of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation: A comprehensive review
    Sang Jin Kim, Jong Man Kim
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2022; 28(4): 739.     CrossRef
Differences in radiotherapy application according to regional disease characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma
Chai Hong Rim
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(2):113-123.   Published online August 11, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2021.05.26
  • 3,455 Views
  • 77 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
There are differences in opinion regarding the application of external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Some major guidelines state that external beam radiotherapy is yet to attain a sufficient level of evidence. However, caution should be exercised when attempting to understand the clinical need for external beam radiotherapy solely based on the level of evidence. Previously, external beam radiotherapy had low applicability in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma before computed tomography-based planning was popularized. Modern external beam radiotherapy can selectively target tumor cells while sparing normal liver tissues. Recent technologies such as stereotactic body radiotherapy have enabled more precise treatment. The characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma differ significantly according to the regional etiology. The main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma is the hepatitis B virus. It is commonly diagnosed as a locally advanced tumor but with relatively preserved hepatic function. The majority of these hepatocellular carcinoma cases are found in the East Asian population. Hepatocellular carcinoma caused by hepatitis C virus or other benign hepatitis tends to be diagnosed as a less locally aggressive tumor but with deteriorated liver function. The Western world and Japan tend to have patients with such causes. External beam radiotherapy has been more commonly performed for the former, although the use of external beam radiotherapy in the latter might have more concerns with regard to hepatic toxicity. This review discusses the above subjects along with perspectives regarding external beam radiotherapy in recent guidelines.

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  • Will the collaboration of surgery and external radiotherapy open new avenues for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis?
    Jung Wan Choe, Hye Yoon Lee, Chai Hong Rim
    World Journal of Gastroenterology.2022; 28(7): 704.     CrossRef
Original Article
Transarterial chemoembolization using drug-eluting bead compared with radiofrequency ablation for treatment of single small hepatocellular carcinoma: a pilot non-randomized trial
Tae Hoon Kim, Na Hye Kim, Jin Dong Kim, Young Nam Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Eun Jung Kim, Ki Deok Yoo, Choong Heon Ryu, Ha Hun Song, Hyun Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(2):146-154.   Published online August 11, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2021.05.20
  • 2,085 Views
  • 110 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
/Aims: Surgical resection, transplantation, and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are generally accepted as amenable treatments for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently drug-eluting beads (DEB) which had several treatment advantages were introduced for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of DEB-TACE compared with RFA for the treatment of single small HCC.
Methods
In this pilot non-randomized trial, we assessed retrospective data of 40 patients who underwent DEB-TACE (n=21) or RFA (n=19) for single small (≤3 centimeter in greatest dimension) HCC. The primary outcomes were tumor response and time to recurrence. The secondary outcome was treatment-related complications.
Results
Complete response rate to DEB-TACE and RFA after first follow-up assessment was 90.5% and 94.7%, respectively (P=1.000). During mean follow-up of 87.6 months (95% confidence interval: 74.4-102), 7 patients experienced local recurrence. The 6- and 12-month cumulative local recurrence rate was 5.0% and 21.8% in DEB-TACE vs. 11.1% and 17.0% in RFA group (P=0.877). A total 14 distant intrahepatic recurrences were developed and 12- and 24-month cumulative distant intrahepatic recurrence rate was 20.6% and 42.7% in DEBTACE vs. 17.2% and 36.3% in RFA group (P=0.844). Two patients experienced gangrenous cholecystitis after DEB-TACE requiring cholecystectomy as treatment-related adverse event.
Conclusions
Tumor response and recurrence rate after single session of DEB-TACE or RFA were similar. DEB-TACE could be applied selectively in patients with a single small HCC if the other therapeutic modality is unfeasible.

Citations

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  • Comparable Outcomes in Early Hepatocellular Carcinomas Treated with Trans-Arterial Chemoembolization and Radiofrequency Ablation
    Benjamin Wei Rong Tay, Daniel Q. Huang, Muthiah Mark, Neo Wee Thong, Lee Guan Huei, Lim Seng Gee, Low How Cheng, Lee Yin Mei, Prem Thurairajah, Lim Jia Chen, Cheng Han Ng, Wen Hui Lim, Darren Jun Hao Tan, Da Costa Maureen, Kow Wei Chieh Alfred, Iyer Shrid
    Biomedicines.2022; 10(10): 2361.     CrossRef
Case Report
A Case of Lymphocyte-Rich Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Patient Who Was Treated for Colon Cancer
Jae Won Song, Ho Soo Chun, Jae Seung Lee, Hye Won Lee, Beom Kyung Kim, Seung Up Kim, Jun Yong Park, Sang Hoon Ahn, Young Nyun Park, Dai Hoon Han, Do Young Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(1):69-75.   Published online March 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.21.1.69
  • 1,819 Views
  • 51 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) primarily originates in the liver with hepatic differentiation. However, HCCs are not homogenous, and approximately 35% of HCC cases are classified as histopathological variants that present distinct pathologic characteristics. In particular, the lymphocyte-rich variant is the rarest subtype accounting for less than 1% of HCCs, which is not well known to date about molecular features and pathophysiology. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was suspected of metastatic liver cancer and confirmed as lymphocyte-rich HCC pathologically. A 78-year-old woman who underwent a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer was referred to our hospital for a newly detected liver mass. We could not make a decision because of insufficient evidence for diagnosis from imaging studies. After resection, we found that it was a lymphocyte-rich HCC. The pathologic features and prognostic trends of this subtype are also discussed.

Citations

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  • Uncommon variants of hepatocellular carcinoma: Not one size fits all
    Reetu Kundu, Nalini Gupta, Debajyoti Chatterjee, Ajay Duseja
    Diagnostic Cytopathology.2022; 50(1): 28.     CrossRef
Review Article
External Beam Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: a Review of the Current Guidelines in the East and the West
Sang Min Yoon
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(1):25-33.   Published online March 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.21.1.25
  • 2,727 Views
  • 125 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is geographically heterogeneous depending on the underlying liver disease. Moreover, the decisions and recommendations about standard treatments differ between countries, especially between the East and the West. Because of the complexity of treatment decisions for the management of HCC, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended to maximize the therapeutic efficacy. External beam radiotherapy (RT) has been increasingly used to manage HCC when recommended treatments cannot be applied in real-world clinical practice. However, Western guidelines for the management of HCC do not recommend RT as a treatment option due to the lack of clinical evidence. RT has often been used more in Eastern countries than in Western countries; hence, it is necessary to review both Eastern and Western guidelines for HCC treatment regarding the recommendations about RT. In this study, the comments and potential roles of external beam RT are summarized from several treatment guidelines for the management of HCC.

Citations

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  • Differences in radiotherapy application according to regional disease characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Chai Hong Rim
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2021; 21(2): 113.     CrossRef

JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer