Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Search

Page Path
HOME > Search
31 "Carcinoma, hepatocellular"
Filter
Filter
Article category
Publication year
Review Articles
A multidisciplinary approach with immunotherapies for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma
Yu Rim Lee
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):316-329.   Published online September 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.09.04
  • 1,169 Views
  • 93 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive disease that is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Advanced HCC has limited treatment options and often has a poor prognosis. For the past decade, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been the only treatments approved for advanced HCC that have shown overall survival (OS) benefits; however, but their clinical efficacy has been limited. Recent trials have demonstrated promising advancements in survival outcomes through immunotherapy-based treatments, such as combinations of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) with other ICIs, antiangiogenic drugs, and locoregional therapies. The atezolizumab-bevacizumab and durvalumab-tremelimumab (STRIDE) regimen has significantly improved survival rates as a first-line treatment and has become the new standard of care. Therefore, combined treatments for advanced HCC can result in better treatment outcomes owing to their synergistic effects, which requires a multidisciplinary approach. Ongoing studies are examining other therapeutic innovations that can improve disease control and OS rates. Despite improvements in the treatment of advanced HCC, further studies on the optimal treatment selection and sequences, biomarker identification, combination approaches with other therapies, and development of novel immunotherapy agents are required. This review presents the current treatment options and clinical data of the ICI-based combination immunotherapies for advanced HCC from a multidisciplinary perspective.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reduced-Dose or Discontinuation of Bevacizumab Might Be Considered after Variceal Bleeding in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Receiving Atezolizumab/Bevacizumab: Case Reports
    Kyeong-Min Yeom, Young-Gi Song, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim
    Medicina.2024; 60(1): 157.     CrossRef
Management of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: challenges and strategies for optimal outcomes
Jae Hyun Yoon, Sung Kyu Choi
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):300-315.   Published online September 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.08.27
  • 1,421 Views
  • 128 Downloads
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with a poor prognosis, management of early-stage HCC is often successful with highly efficacious treatment modalities such as liver transplantation, surgical resection, and radiofrequency ablation. However, unfavorable clinical outcomes have been observed under certain circumstances, even after efficient treatment. Factors that predict unsuitable results after treatment include tumor markers, inflammatory markers, imaging findings reflecting tumor biology, specific outcome indicators for each treatment modality, liver functional reserve, and the technical feasibility of the treatment modalities. Various strategies may overcome these challenges, including the application of reinforced treatment indication criteria with predictive markers reflecting tumor biology, compensation for technical issues with up-to-date technologies, modification of treatment modalities, downstaging with locoregional therapies (such as transarterial chemotherapy or radiotherapy), and recently introduced combination immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss the challenges to achieving optimal outcomes in the management of early-stage HCC and suggest strategies to overcome these obstacles.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diosgenin potentiates the anticancer effect of doxorubicin and volasertib via regulating polo-like kinase 1 and triggering apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells
    Eman H. Yousef, Mohamed E. El-Mesery, Maha R. Habeeb, Laila A. Eissa
    Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Surgical Resection and Radiofrequency Ablation in Elderly Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Jun Il Kim, Jayoun Lee, Gi Hong Choi, Min Woo Lee, Dong Ah Park, Jeong-Ju Yoo
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy of Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Moonhyung Lee, Hyun Phil Shin
    Medicina.2023; 59(12): 2174.     CrossRef
Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma using Sonazoid: a comprehensive review
Woo Kyoung Jeong
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):272-283.   Published online September 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.08.25
  • 839 Views
  • 64 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Sonazoid contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is a promising technique for the detection and diagnosis of focal liver lesions, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, a collaborative effort between the Korean Society of Radiology and Korean Society of Abdominal Radiology resulted in the publication of guidelines for diagnosing HCC using Sonazoid CEUS. These guidelines propose specific criteria for identifying HCC based on the imaging characteristics observed during Sonazoid CEUS. The suggested diagnostic criteria include nonrim arterial phase hyperenhancement, and the presence of late and mild washout, or Kupffer phase washout under the premise that the early or marked washout should not occur during the portal venous phase. These criteria aim to improve the accuracy of HCC diagnosis using Sonazoid CEUS. This review offers a comprehensive overview of Sonazoid CEUS in the context of HCC diagnosis. It covers the fundamental principles of Sonazoid CEUS and its clinical applications, and introduces the recently published guidelines. By providing a summary of this emerging technique, this review contributes to a better understanding of the potential role of Sonazoid CEUS for diagnosing HCC.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Sonazoid contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: strengths and shortcomings
    Sung Won Lee, Min Kyu Kang, Xiang Zhang
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2023; 23(2): 238.     CrossRef
Imaging prognostication and tumor biology in hepatocellular carcinoma
Diana Kadi, Marilyn F. Yamamoto, Emily C. Lerner, Hanyu Jiang, Kathryn J. Fowler, Mustafa R. Bashir
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):284-299.   Published online September 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.08.29
  • 1,343 Views
  • 91 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy, and represents a significant global health burden with rising incidence rates, despite a more thorough understanding of the etiology and biology of HCC, as well as advancements in diagnosis and treatment modalities. According to emerging evidence, imaging features related to tumor aggressiveness can offer relevant prognostic information, hence validation of imaging prognostic features may allow for better noninvasive outcomes prediction and inform the selection of tailored therapies, ultimately improving survival outcomes for patients with HCC.
Original Articles
Clinical outcome of surgical resection for multifocal T2-T3 hepatocellular carcinoma up to 3 nodules: a comparative analysis with a single nodule
Sehyeon Yu, Hye-Sung Jo, Young-Dong Yu, Yoo jin Choi, Dong-Sik Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):377-388.   Published online September 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.08.24
  • 495 Views
  • 35 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aim
s: Although the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system seems to underestimate the impact of curative-intent surgical resection for multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), recent studies have indicated favorable results for the surgical resection of multiple HCC. This study aimed to assess clinical outcomes and feasibility of surgical resection for multifocal HCC with up to three nodules compared with single tumor cases.
Methods
Patients who underwent surgical resection for HCC with up to three nodules between 2009 and 2020 were included, and those with the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition, T1 and T4 stages were excluded to reduce differences in disease distribution and severity. Finally, 81 and 52 patients were included in the single and multiple treatment groups, respectively. Short- and long-term outcomes including recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), were evaluated.
Results
All patients were classified as Child-Pugh class A. RFS and OS were not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.176 and P=0.966, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that transfusion and intrahepatic metastasis were significantly associated with recurrence (P=0.046 and P=0.005, respectively). Additionally, intrahepatic metastasis was significantly associated with OS (hazard ratio, 1.989; 95% confidence interval, 1.040-3.802; P=0.038).
Conclusions
Since there was no significant difference in survival between the single and multiple groups among patients with AJCC 8th stage T2 and T3, surgical resection with curative intent could be considered with acceptable long-term survival for selected patients with multiple HCC of up to three nodules.
Nomogram for predicting overall survival in patients with large (>5 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma based on real-world practice
Nalee Kim, Jeong Il Yu, Hee Chul Park, Jung Yong Hong, Ho Yeong Lim, Myung Ji Goh, Yong-Han Paik
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):350-361.   Published online September 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.08.10
  • 670 Views
  • 41 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aim
Patients with large (>5 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have limited treatment options, thus necessitating the identification of prognostic factors and the development of predictive tools. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors and to construct a nomogram to predict survival outcomes in patients with large HCC.
Methods
A cohort of 438 patients, who were diagnosed with large HCC at a tertiary hospital between 2015 and 2018, was analyzed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify key prognosticators of overall survival (OS), and an independent set of prognostic factors was used to develop a nomogram. The discrimination and calibration abilities of the nomogram were assessed and internal validation was performed using cross-validation and bootstrapping methods.
Results
During a median follow-up of 9.3 months, the median OS was 9.9 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 43.9%. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that performance status, modified albumin-bilirubin grade, tumor size, extent of portal vein tumor thrombosis, and initial treatment significantly affected OS. The newly developed nomogram incorporating these variables demonstrated favorable accuracy (Harrell’s concordance index, 0.807).
Conclusions
The newly developed nomogram facilitated the estimation of individual survival outcomes in patients with large HCC, providing an acceptable level of accuracy.
Review Article
The role of lenvatinib in the era of immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma
Matthew Man Pok Lee, Landon Long Chan, Stephen Lam Chan
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):262-271.   Published online August 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.07.17
  • 2,051 Views
  • 221 Downloads
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently presents as advanced stage with poor prognosis and high mortality. Systemic treatment is the treatment of choice for advanced disease. In 2007, the first multi-kinase inhibitor (MKI) sorafenib was approved and shown to modestly prolong overall survival (OS). The progress of systemic therapy has been slow afterwards until 2018 when lenvatinib, another MKI, was shown to be non-inferior to sorafenib on median OS as the first-line therapy for HCC. Since then, remarkable progress has been achieved on the treatment of advanced HCC, including the development of second-line targeted treatment, including regorafenib, cabozantinib and ramucirumab from 2017 to 2019. A growing focus has been placed on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), its ligand PD-L1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4. These ICIs have proven their potency in treating HCC as both initial and subsequent line of therapy. At present, both regimens of atezolizumab combined with bevacizumab, as well as the combination of tremelimumab and durvalumab, are recommended as the first-line treatments based on positive phase III clinical trials. With the advancement of ICIs, it is anticipated that the role of MKIs in the treatment of HCC will evolve. In this article, lenvatinib, one of the most commonly used MKIs in HCC, is chosen to be reviewed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reduced-Dose or Discontinuation of Bevacizumab Might Be Considered after Variceal Bleeding in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Receiving Atezolizumab/Bevacizumab: Case Reports
    Kyeong-Min Yeom, Young-Gi Song, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim
    Medicina.2024; 60(1): 157.     CrossRef
  • The Position of Multikinase Inhibitors in the Era of Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Beom Kyung Kim
    Gut and Liver.2024; 18(1): 3.     CrossRef
Recommendation and Guideline
Transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: 2023 expert consensus-based practical recommendations of the Korean Liver Cancer Association
Yuri Cho, Jin Woo Choi, Hoon Kwon, Kun Yung Kim, Byung Chan Lee, Hee Ho Chu, Dong Hyeon Lee, Han Ah Lee, Gyoung Min Kim, Jung Suk Oh, Dongho Hyun, In Joon Lee, Hyunchul Rhim
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):241-261.   Published online July 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.05.22
  • 1,735 Views
  • 121 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) was introduced in 1977 with the administration of chemotherapeutic agent to gelatin sponge particles through the hepatic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and was established as conventional TACE using Lipiodol in the 1980s. In the 2000s, drug-eluting beads were developed and applied clinically. Currently, TACE is a commonly used non-surgical treatment modality for patients with HCC who are unsuitable for curative treatment. Considering the vital role of TACE in the management of HCC, it is crucial to organize current knowledge and expert opinions regarding patient preparation, procedural techniques, and post-treatment care in TACE, which can enhance therapeutic efficacy and safety. A group of 12 experts in the fields of interventional radiology and hepatology, convened by the Research Committee of the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA), has developed expert consensus-based practical recommendations in TACE. These recommendations have been endorsed by the Korean Society of Interventional Radiology and provide useful information and direction in performing TACE procedure as well as pre- and post- procedural patient care.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Implications of the first edition of the Korean expert consensus-based practice recommendations for transarterial chemoembolization in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Jin Wook Chung
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2023; 23(2): 235.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Isolation and characterization of cancer-associated fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma
Kyoungdo Mun, Jiwon Han, Pureun Roh, Jonggeun Park, Gahee Kim, Wonhee Hur, Jeongwon Jang, Jongyoung Choi, Seungkew Yoon, Youngkyoung You, Hojoong Choi, Pilsoo Sung
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):341-349.   Published online June 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.04.30
  • 1,887 Views
  • 141 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/Aim
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an immunosuppressive role in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of human cancers; however, their characteristics and role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain to be elucidated.
Methods
Nine tumor and surrounding liver tissue samples from patients with HCC who underwent surgery were used to isolate patient-derived CAFs. Cell morphology was observed using an optical microscope after culture, and cell phenotypes were evaluated using flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Cytokines secreted by CAFs into culture medium were quantified using a multiplex cytokine assay.
Results
CAFs were abundant in the TME of HCC and were adjacent to immune cells. After culture, the CAFs and non-tumor fibroblasts exhibited spindle shapes. We observed a robust expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibroblast activation protein in CAFs, whereas alpha-fetoprotein, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-cadherin were not expressed in CAFs. Furthermore, CAFs showed high secretion of various cytokines, namely C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2.
Conclusions
CAFs are abundant in the TME of HCC and play a crucial role in tumor progression. These fibroblasts secrete cytokines that promote tumor growth and metastasis.
Feasibility of additional radiotherapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab
Tae Hyun Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Yu Ri Cho, Young-Hwan Koh, Joong-Won Park
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(2):330-340.   Published online May 16, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.04.14
  • 1,403 Views
  • 96 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aim
Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective local treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether additional RT is safe and effective in patients with advanced HCC receiving atezolizumab plus bevacizumab remains unclear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of additional RT in these patients.
Methods
Between March and October 2021, we retrospectively analyzed seven patients with advanced HCC who received RT during treatment with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. The median prescribed RT dose was 35 Gy (range, 33–66). Freedom from local progression (FFLP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) after RT were analyzed.
Results
The median follow-up duration after RT was 14.2 months (range, 10.0–18.6). Of the seven patients, disease progression was noted in six (85.7%), the sites of disease progression were local in two (28.6%), intrahepatic in four (57.1%), and extrahepatic in four (57.1%). The median time of FFLP was not reached, and PFS and OS times were 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6–4.5) and 14.8% (95% CI, 12.5–17.2) months, respectively. The 1-year FFLP, PFS, and OS rates were 60% (95% CI, 43.8–76.2), 0%, and 85.7% (95% CI, 75.9–95.5), respectively. Grade 3 or higher hematologic adverse events (AEs) were not observed, but grade 3 nonhematologic AEs unrelated to RT were observed in one patient.
Conclusions
The addition of RT may be feasible in patients with advanced HCC treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. However, further studies are required to validate these findings.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Letter regarding “Feasibility of additional radiotherapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab”
    Sun Hyun Bae, Hee Chul Park
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2023; 23(2): 402.     CrossRef
Current status of ultrasonography in national cancer surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma in South Korea: a large-scale multicenter study
Sun Hong Yoo, Soon Sun Kim, Sang Gyune Kim, Jung Hyun Kwon, Han-Ah Lee, Yeon Seok Seo, Young Kul Jung, Hyung Joon Yim, Do Seon Song, Seong Hee Kang, Moon Young Kim, Young-Hwan Ahn, Jieun Han, Young Seok Kim, Young Chang, Soung Won Jeong, Jae Young Jang, Jeong-Ju Yoo
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(1):189-201.   Published online March 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.03.11
  • 1,241 Views
  • 62 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aim
Abdominal ultrasonography (USG) is recommended as a surveillance test for high-risk groups for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to analyze the current status of the national cancer surveillance program for HCC in South Korea and investigate the effects of patient-, physician-, and machine-related factors on HCC detection sensitivity.
Methods
This multicenter retrospective cohort study collected surveillance USG data from the high-risk group for HCC (liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B or C >40 years of age) at eight South Korean tertiary hospitals in 2017.
Results
In 2017, 45 experienced hepatologists or radiologists performed 8,512 USG examinations. The physicians had a mean 15.0±8.3 years of experience; more hepatologists (61.4%) than radiologists (38.6%) participated. Each USG scan took a mean 12.2±3.4 minutes. The HCC detection rate by surveillance USG was 0.3% (n=23). Over 27 months of follow-up, an additional 135 patients (0.7%) developed new HCC. The patients were classified into three groups based on timing of HCC diagnosis since the 1st surveillance USG, and no significant intergroup difference in HCC characteristics was noted. HCC detection was significantly associated with patient-related factors, such as old age and advanced fibrosis, but not with physician- or machine-related factors.
Conclusions
This is the first study of the current status of USG as a surveillance method for HCC at tertiary hospitals in South Korea. It is necessary to develop quality indicators and quality assessment procedures for USG to improve the detection rate of HCC.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Korea: 15-Year Analysis
    Log Young Kim, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Young Chang, Hoongil Jo, Young Youn Cho, Sangheun Lee, Dong Hyeon Lee, Jae Young Jang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Subclassification of advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma with macrovascular invasion: combined transarterial chemoembolization and radiotherapy as an alternative first-line treatment
Sujin Jin, Won-Mook Choi, Ju Hyun Shim, Danbi Lee, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Han Chu Lee, Jinhong Jung, Sang Min Yoon, Jonggi Choi
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(1):177-188.   Published online March 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.03.04
  • 1,268 Views
  • 84 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aim
The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) guidelines recommend systemic therapy as the only first-line treatment for patients with BCLC stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) despite its heterogeneity of disease extent. We aimed to identify patients who might benefit from combined transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiation therapy (RT) by subclassifying BCLC stage C.
Methods
A total of 1,419 treatment-naïve BCLC stage C patients with macrovascular invasion (MVI) who were treated with combined TACE and RT (n=1,115) or systemic treatment (n=304) were analyzed. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Factors associated with OS were identified and assigned points by the Cox model. The patients were subclassified into three groups based on these points.
Results
The mean age was 55.4 years, and 87.8% were male. The median OS was 8.3 months. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association of Child-Pugh B, infiltrative-type tumor or tumor size ≥10 cm, main or bilateral portal vein invasion, and extrahepatic metastasis with poor OS. The sub-classification was categorized into low (point ≤1), intermediate (point=2), and high (point ≥3) risks based on the sum of points (range, 0–4). The OS in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups was 22.6, 8.2, and 3.8 months, respectively. In the low and intermediate-risk groups, patients treated with combined TACE and RT exhibited significantly longer OS (24.2 and 9.5 months, respectively) than those who received systemic treatment (6.4 and 5.1 months, respectively; P<0.0001).
Conclusions
Combined TACE and RT may be considered as a first-line treatment option for HCC patients with MVI when classified into low- and intermediate-risk groups.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • How to optimize the treatment strategy for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma with macrovascular invasion
    Beom Kyung Kim
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2023; 23(1): 121.     CrossRef
Case Report
Adult hepatoblastoma: making the challenging distinction from hepatocellular carcinoma
Allison Kaye L. Pagarigan, Paulo Giovanni L. Mendoza
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(1):219-224.   Published online March 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.02.24
  • 650 Views
  • 47 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatoblastoma is an exceptionally rare malignancy in adults with just over 70 non-pediatric cases reported in literature. Recounted is a case of a 49-year-old female who presented with acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain, elevated serum alpha fetoprotein and a large liver mass on imaging. Hepatectomy was performed under clinical suspicion of hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunomorphologic characteristics of the tumor proved consistent with hepatoblastoma of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal type. Hepatocellular carcinoma remains to be the primary differential diagnosis for adult hepatoblastoma, however, distinguishing between these two neoplasms requires close histomorphologic assessment and immunohistochemical profiling as clinical, radiologic and gross pathologic findings typically overlap. Making this distinction is highly crucial in the timely initiation of surgical and chemotherapeutic interventions for this inherently aggressive and rapidly fatal disease.
Review Article
Radiologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma related to prognosis
Shin Hye Hwang, Hyungjin Rhee
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(1):143-156.   Published online March 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.02.16
  • 1,706 Views
  • 105 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
The cross-sectional imaging findings play a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies have shown that imaging findings of HCC are not only relevant for the diagnosis of HCC, but also for identifying genetic and pathologic characteristics and determining prognosis. Imaging findings such as rim arterial phase hyperenhancement, arterial phase peritumoral hyperenhancement, hepatobiliary phase peritumoral hypointensity, non-smooth tumor margin, low apparent diffusion coefficient, and the LR-M category of the Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis. In contrast, imaging findings such as enhancing capsule appearance, hepatobiliary phase hyperintensity, and fat in mass have been reported to be associated with a favorable prognosis. Most of these imaging findings were examined in retrospective, single-center studies that were not adequately validated. However, the imaging findings can be applied for deciding the treatment strategy for HCC, if their significance can be confirmed by a large multicenter study. In this literature, we would like to review imaging findings related to the prognosis of HCC as well as their associated clinicopathological characteristics.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Imaging prognostication and tumor biology in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Diana Kadi, Marilyn F. Yamamoto, Emily C. Lerner, Hanyu Jiang, Kathryn J. Fowler, Mustafa R. Bashir
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2023; 23(2): 284.     CrossRef
Original Article
Use of doxorubicin-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein invasion: a prospective study
Su Jong Yu, Yun Bin Lee, Eun Ju Cho, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Jin Wook Chung, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Yoon Jun Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(1):166-176.   Published online March 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.02.08
  • 1,720 Views
  • 88 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aim
To evaluate the applicability of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment with doxorubicin drug-eluting beads (DEBs) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein invasion (PVI).
Methods
This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all participants. A total of 30 HCC patients with PVI received DEB-TACE between 2015 and 2018. The following parameters were evaluated: complications during DEB-TACE, abdominal pain, fever, and laboratory outcomes, including liver function change. Overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), and adverse events were also analyzed and assessed.
Results
DEBs measuring 100–300 μm in diameter were loaded with doxorubicin (150 mg per procedure). There were no complications during DEB-TACE and no significant differences in the levels of prothrombin time, serum albumin, or total bilirubin at follow-up compared to baseline. The median TTP was 102 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 42–207 days) and the median OS was 216 days (95% CI, 160–336 days). Three patients (10%) had severe adverse reactions, including transient acute cholangitis (n=1), cerebellar infarction (n=1), and pulmonary embolism (n=1), but no treatment-related death occurred.
Conclusions
DEB-TACE may be a therapeutic option for advanced HCC patients with PVI.

JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer