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7 "Surveillance"
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Original Article
Current status of ultrasonography in national cancer surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma in South Korea: a large-scale multicenter study
Sun Hong Yoo, Soon Sun Kim, Sang Gyune Kim, Jung Hyun Kwon, Han-Ah Lee, Yeon Seok Seo, Young Kul Jung, Hyung Joon Yim, Do Seon Song, Seong Hee Kang, Moon Young Kim, Young-Hwan Ahn, Jieun Han, Young Seok Kim, Young Chang, Soung Won Jeong, Jae Young Jang, Jeong-Ju Yoo
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(1):189-201.   Published online March 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.03.11
  • 1,551 Views
  • 65 Downloads
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aim
Abdominal ultrasonography (USG) is recommended as a surveillance test for high-risk groups for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to analyze the current status of the national cancer surveillance program for HCC in South Korea and investigate the effects of patient-, physician-, and machine-related factors on HCC detection sensitivity.
Methods
This multicenter retrospective cohort study collected surveillance USG data from the high-risk group for HCC (liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B or C >40 years of age) at eight South Korean tertiary hospitals in 2017.
Results
In 2017, 45 experienced hepatologists or radiologists performed 8,512 USG examinations. The physicians had a mean 15.0±8.3 years of experience; more hepatologists (61.4%) than radiologists (38.6%) participated. Each USG scan took a mean 12.2±3.4 minutes. The HCC detection rate by surveillance USG was 0.3% (n=23). Over 27 months of follow-up, an additional 135 patients (0.7%) developed new HCC. The patients were classified into three groups based on timing of HCC diagnosis since the 1st surveillance USG, and no significant intergroup difference in HCC characteristics was noted. HCC detection was significantly associated with patient-related factors, such as old age and advanced fibrosis, but not with physician- or machine-related factors.
Conclusions
This is the first study of the current status of USG as a surveillance method for HCC at tertiary hospitals in South Korea. It is necessary to develop quality indicators and quality assessment procedures for USG to improve the detection rate of HCC.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Korea: 15-Year Analysis
    Log Young Kim, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Young Chang, Hoongil Jo, Young Youn Cho, Sangheun Lee, Dong Hyeon Lee, Jae Young Jang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long-Term HBsAg Titer Kinetics with Entecavir/Tenofovir: Implications for Predicting Functional Cure and Low Levels
    Soon Kyu Lee, Soon Woo Nam, Jeong Won Jang, Jung Hyun Kwon
    Diagnostics.2024; 14(5): 495.     CrossRef
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Review Articles
Imaging Modalities for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance: Expanding Horizons beyond Ultrasound
Hyo Jung Park, So Yeon Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2020;20(2):99-105.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.20.2.99
  • 4,746 Views
  • 194 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
In Asian countries favoring loco-regional treatment such as surgical resection or ablation, very early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) should be the main target for surveillance. Even though ultrasound (US) has been accepted as a primary imaging modality for HCC surveillance, its performance in detecting very early-stage HCCs is insufficient. Moreover, in more than 20% of patients at high risk for HCC, visualization of the liver on US may be limited owing to the advanced distortion and heterogeneity of the liver parenchyma. Recently revised HCC clinical guidelines allow the use of alternative surveillance tools including computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in patients with inadequate US exams. This paper summarizes the findings of recent studies using imaging modalities other than US as surveillance tools for HCC as well as strengths and limitations of these modalities.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Imaging features of hepatobiliary MRI and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development
    Jong-In Chang, Dong Hyun Sinn, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Jeong Ah Hwang, Ho Young Won, Kyunga Kim, Wonseok Kang, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung-Woon Paik
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology.2022; 57(12): 1470.     CrossRef
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Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance
So Hyun Park, Bohyun Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2020;20(1):25-31.   Published online March 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.20.1.25
  • 5,580 Views
  • 245 Downloads
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is recommended when the annual incidence of HCC exceeds 1.5%. In 2018, several international guidelines included alternative surveillance modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as alternatives for patients with inadequate surveillance with an ultrasound. Currently, abbreviated MRI selectively includes several key sequences and is emerging as an effective tool for HCC surveillance with reduced cost and scan time and the required diagnostic performance. The incidence of HCC substantially impacts the benefits of surveillance in terms of cost-effectiveness. Therefore, we need to individualize imaging surveillance of HCC, tailor screening, and determine risk-stratified strategies. The purpose of this article was to present a brief overview of the diagnostic performance and cost-effectiveness of liver MRI as an HCC surveillance tool.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Adding MRI as a Surveillance Test for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis Can Improve Prognosis
    Su Jong Yu, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Dong Ho Lee, Su Jin Kim, Eun Ju Cho, Se Hyung Kim, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, Jeong Min Lee, Jae Young Lee, Jung-Hwan Yoon
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(2): 382.     CrossRef
  • MRI features of histologic subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with histologic, genetic, and molecular biologic classification
    Ja Kyung Yoon, Jin-Young Choi, Hyungjin Rhee, Young Nyun Park
    European Radiology.2022; 32(8): 5119.     CrossRef
  • Imaging features of hepatobiliary MRI and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development
    Jong-In Chang, Dong Hyun Sinn, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Jeong Ah Hwang, Ho Young Won, Kyunga Kim, Wonseok Kang, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung-Woon Paik
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology.2022; 57(12): 1470.     CrossRef
  • Potential of a Non-Contrast-Enhanced Abbreviated MRI Screening Protocol (NC-AMRI) in High-Risk Patients under Surveillance for HCC
    François Willemssen, Quido de Lussanet de la Sablonière, Daniel Bos, Jan IJzermans, Robert De Man, Roy Dwarkasing
    Cancers.2022; 14(16): 3961.     CrossRef
  • Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients diagnosed under regular surveillance: potential implications for surveillance goal
    Joo Hye Song, Myung Ji Goh, Yewan Park, Joo Hyun Oh, Wonseok Kang, Dong Hyun Sinn, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung Woon Paik
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology.2021; 56(3): 274.     CrossRef
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Original Article
Discrepancy between the Actual Clinical Status of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Expectations from Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance: a Single-Center Study
Nak Min Kim, Young Seok Doh, Ji Woong Jang, Seok-Hwan Kim, Hyuk Soo Eun, Jae Hyuck Jun, Sae Hee Kim, Il Hyun Baek, Sung Hee Jung
J Liver Cancer. 2019;19(1):30-37.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.19.1.30
  • 4,416 Views
  • 95 Downloads
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/Aim
s: The National Liver Cancer Screening Program (NLCSP) has been implemented for the past 15 years in Korea. However, the actual clinical experience in Korea is inconsistent with the expectations of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance program. To evaluate the actual clinical situation of HCC diagnoses, we investigated disease severity in patients with HCC and the diagnostic environment.
Methods
From January 2011 to December 2015, all patients who were diagnosed with HCC in a single secondary hospital in Daejeon city were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Severity of HCC was evaluated according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system.
Results
Over the course of 5 years, 298 participants were enrolled. The mean age of participants was 64.0 years. Positive hepatitis B surface antigen was confirmed in 134 patients (45.0%), 35 patients (11.7%) tested positive for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody, and 93 patients (32.2%) had more than 40 g/day of alcohol consumption. The proportions of patients according to BCLC stages were as follows: BCLC-0, 28 patients (9.4%); BCLC-A, 42 patients (14.1%); BCLC-B, 26 patients (8.7%); BCLC-C, 134 patients (45.0%); and BCLC-D, 68 patients (22.8%). The diagnostic environments were as follows: 19 patients were in the NLCSP group (6.4%), 114 in the group with presenting signs (38.3%), 110 in the regular outpatient care group (36.9%), and 55 patients in the incidental diagnosis group (18.5%).
Conclusions
Most patients (67.8%) had advanced stage HCC at diagnosis, and curative treatment was not indicated due to the severity disease. Thus, the actual situation is far worse than the theoretical expectation of HCC surveillance, suggesting that many high-risk patients for HCC are missed in surveillance.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • NCA‐GA‐SVM: A new two‐level feature selection method based on neighborhood component analysis and genetic algorithm in hepatocellular carcinoma fatality prognosis
    Wojciech Książek, Filip Turza, Paweł Pławiak
    International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Imaging Modalities for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance: Expanding Horizons beyond Ultrasound
    Hyo Jung Park, So Yeon Kim
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2020; 20(2): 99.     CrossRef
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Review Articles
Treatment and Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Elderly Patients
Rho, Seoung Yoon , Lee, Hyun Woong , Kim, Kyung Sik
J Liver Cancer. 2018;18(2):103-114.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.18.2.103
  • 2,225 Views
  • 69 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cancer in the digestive system based on survey of domestic cancer incidence, and the ratio of elderly aged 65 or older is expected to rise steadily, leading to a higher incidence of total hepatocellular carcinoma. The most important thing in treating these older patients with HCC is to assess the benefits and risks of the treatment in advance. In other words, the benefit of treatment should be greater than the reduction of survival period or maladjustment due to treatment. Based on these perspectives, we examined how the detailed treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma differs from that of general treatment in elderly patients. In conclusion, older age was not a definite prognostic factor of survival risk-benefit comparison in the most treatment modalities. However it should be carefully considered and approached about possible complications in treating HCC in elderly patients.
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Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Kung-Hung Lin, Wei-Lun Tsai Tsai
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):93-104.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.93
  • 990 Views
  • 16 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. HCC is a suitable disease for surveillance programs because it is relatively common in patients with chronic liver disease, and has very good prognosis if diagnosed at an early stage. When HCC presents with clinical symptoms, the tumor is typically very far advanced and the patient has few therapeutic options. Individuals with chronic viral hepatitis and other forms of liver disease are at risk for developing HCC. Thus, screening and surveillance for HCC would appear to be very appropriate. However, there is no definitive evidence that surveillance improves patient outcomes and the current surveillance tests have less than optimal sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Nonetheless, measurement of alpha-fetoprotein levels in serum and ultrasound of the liver have become routine practice in many countries, despite a lack of evidence of their overall benefit. Clearly, better methods are needed for early diagnosis of HCC. This review outlines the target population at risk for HCC and diagnostic techniques for screening and surveillance.
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Early Detection of HCC: What is the Best Strategy?
Do Young Kim
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2012;12(2):113-119.   Published online September 30, 2012
  • 463 Views
  • 8 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
HCC is an appropriate cancer to apply surveillance program for early cancer detection. Currently, liver ultrasonography (US) combined with serum biomarker, alpha‐fetoprotein (AFP), measurement every 6 months is the standard method of HCC surveillance. Although US is the most widely used tool, its sensitivity in early HCC (within Milan criteria) detection during surveillance is only 63%. AFP is the representative biomarker for both HCC surveillance and diagnosis. The unsatisfactory performance of AFP as a surveillance tool requires discovery of novel biomarker or combination with other serum markers. Desgamma‐ carboxy prothrombin (DCP) and AFP‐L3 are candidate biomarkers which are complementary to AFP. AFP‐L3 is an emerging biomarker for diagnosis of HCC, but it needs to be validated as a surveillance tool. Regarding surveillance interval, 6 months or less seems to be superior to more longer interval in terms of early HCC detection and survival improvement. The strategies of HCC surveillance are different in countries according to health care system including available resources and health insurance coverage. Many studies demonstrated that rate of early cancer detection and application of curative therapies was increased, along with survival benefit, by HCC surveillance which is now the standard care, not just a recommendation. Improved ultrasound technology and biomarker discovery such as a specific microRNA are necessary to make more progress in HCC surveillance.
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JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer