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J Liver Cancer > Volume 16(2); 2016 > Article
Journal of Liver Cancer 2016;16(2):108-117.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.16.2.108    Published online September 30, 2016.
High-level Expression of Interleukin-17 and C-reactive Protein Predicts Tumor Progression in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated by Transarterial Chemoembolization
Myeong Jun Song1, Sung Won Lee2, Eun-Jee Oh3, Bohyun Jang4, Jeong Won Jang4, Si Hyun Bae4, Jong Young Choi4, Seung Kew Yoon4
1Division of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Daejeon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon
2Division of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Bucheon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon
3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
4Divsion of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence:  Si Hyun Bae,
Email: baesh@catholic.ac.kr
Abstract
Background/Aims
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard locoregional treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Angiogenesis and inflammation play important roles in tumor growth in HCC. In this study, we evaluated the associations between the levels of growth factors and inflammatory markers and clinical prognosis in patients with unresectable HCC treated with TACE.
Methods
The clinical outcomes of 58 HCC patients treated with TACE at the Catholic Medical Centers from January, 2012 to February 2015 were evaluated. Baseline levels of the growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were compared with the treatment outcomes. The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP); the secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS).
Results
During the 20.8 months of follow-up, TTP was significantly delayed in patients with low levels of hs-CRP (≤0.15) and IL-17 (≤0.94) and a maximal tumor diameter ≤5 cm (P =0.010, P =0.015, and 0.048, respectively). Patients with HCC with low hs-CRP and IL-17 levels had a longer survival than that of those with high hs-CRP levels and IL-17 (35.1 vs. 22.5 months, P =0.000; 41 vs. 21.8 months, P =0.000, respectively). However, any baseline growth factors were not significantly correlated with TTP and OS.
Conclusions
Elevated IL-17 and hs-CRP may be predictive of a poor outcome in patients with HCC treated with TACE. A better understanding of this relationship will require further investigation of the immune mechanisms underlying tumor progression.
Key Words: Chemoembolization; Growth factors; Cytokine; Progression; Survival
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