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HOME > J Liver Cancer > Volume 11(1); 2011 > Article
Review Article Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Joon-Il Choi
Journal of Liver Cancer 2011;11(1):26-32
DOI: https://doi.org/
Published online: February 28, 2011
Department of Radiology, Seoul Saint Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding author:  Joon-Il Choi,
Email: dumky@catholic.ac.kr
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Staging systems of HCC are very complex and disunited because multiple variables, including residual liver function, performance of patients and treatment modalities, can have influence on the survival of the patients and therefore, there is no united and generalized staging system of HCC. Staging systems of HCC can be classified as two categories; Anatomical staging systems and clinical staging systems. In anatomical staging systems, tumor factors are main elements that determine the stage of the patients and LCSGJ systems and AJCC/UICC systems are included in this category. Practice guideline and General rules of HCC by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group adopted LCSGJ system. In clinical staging systems, not only tumor factors but also clinical factors such as liver function, performance of the patients and treatment modalities are considered to determine the stage of the patients. The BCLC system is the only system that provides treatment recommendations for each of the assigned stages based on the best treatment options currently available. Criteria for liver transplantation are on the way of expansion because of the widespread of living donor liver transplantation and several researchers presented various expanded criteria over Milan’s criteria with comparable survival data to those of Milan’s criteria. Upcoming researches of molecular biology and imaging can help the establishment of more precise and united staging systems for the patients with HCC.


JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer