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Ethical policy

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Ethics of research performance and reporting

Human studies

Experimental studies on humans should be consistent with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration and be approved by the Institutional Review Board of the appropriate research institution.

Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors)

  • - Unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants
  • - Describe the methods used to determine sex and gender
  • - Include the subject of both sexes (male and female), and analyze data by sex
  • - If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer).

For studies involving animal experimentation, author(s) must provide assurance that all the animals received humane care according to the criteria outlined in the NIH "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals". The author must state that the use of animals (means all mammals and birds) in the manuscript was approved by the institutional Animal Ethical Committee (AEC) in accordance to the article 14th of Korean Animal Protection Law, or equivalent, in the paper. It must be clearly stated that animal use has complied to the article 13th of Korean Animal Protection Law (The principles of animal use) and the relevant institutional polices in the manuscript. Copies of the protocol approved by institutional AEC or equivalents, must be available for review by the editor if necessary. Additionally, in the Methods section of the manuscript text, authors must include all relevant information of animal or cells for the experiments such as sex of mice (or other in vivo models) or cells, and characteristics (source, certification, genetic backgrounds, etc.) of animals or cells. Describe the methods used to determine sex. We recommend that all data for both sexes (male and female) in mice (or other in vivo models) or cells in the experiments are included, and analyzed by sex. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer).

All studies dealing with clinical trials should be registered on the National Clinical Trials Registered Site or on the site certified by the World Health Organization (WHO) or the International Medical Journal Editors’ Committee. If the content of the manuscript is in conflict of interests, it should be disclosed to the editor. The section on justification and ethics of papers not listed in the journal’s submission guidelines follows international standards for editors and authors of the Publications Ethics Committee (COPE) (http://publicationethics.org/resources/international-standards-for-editors-and-authors).

Duplicate publication

The Council of Science Editors defines redundant publication as “reporting (publishing or attempting to publish) substantially the same work more than once, without attribution of the original source(s)” (CBE Views 1996;19:76–77). The realities of a similar study are as follows; (1) if more than one author is the same author in both studies, (2) the research topic or the subject of the study is the same or similar, (3) the methodology is similar or nearly identical, (4) When the results or interpretations are almost the same. The regulations follow the guidelines described in the International Standards for Editors and Authors of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (http://publicationethics.
org/resources/international-standards-for-editors-andauthors). If an editor raises questions about duplicate publishing, editor will ask the author to submit a written confirmation. In addition, the editor will ask for opinions of the editorial committee and thesis reviewers to make a judgment on duplicate publication. In the case of duplicate publications, the author will be notified and will be subject to the following sanctions:

(1) the author is prohibited from submitting to this journal for the next 5 years; (2) the duplicate publication is notified to the journal where the similar manuscript is submitted or published; (3) The duplicate publication will be notified to the author’s department chief; (4) The duplicate publication will be notified to the place where the author is working. When submitting a manuscript, the author must submit the corresponding manuscripts in such a way as to allow the editor to determine the likelihood of duplicate publication if there is a possibility of duplication with the manuscript which is already published (or under reviewed) in other journals.


Submitting author at the time of article submission is recommended to provide their personal ORCID registration number. ORCID has the advantage of distinguishing you from other researchers and allowing to know the flow of research information.

Author contributions:

Every author of an article should declare their contributions to the research in a title page.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work, (2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) Final approval of the version to be published, (4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Conflict of interest:

Any conflicting interests including financial, commercial, legal, or professional relationship with other organizations, or with the people working with them which could influence your research should be declared in a title page. The editor may decide not to publish your article on the basis of any declared conflict.

The editor shall notify the offense when submitting or publishing a manuscript in the following cases.

  • (1) In case of intentional misrepresentation
  • (2) In the case of an article published in a different author’s name elsewhere without a notice (plagiarism)
  • (3) If the article was published elsewhere in the same author’s name (duplicate publication)
  • (4) Re-issuance of papers submitted to this journal elsewhere without notification or permission by the copyright holder, The Korean Liver Cancer Society.

Authors who submit manuscripts to the Korean Liver Cancer Society should complete the following items on the manuscript management system.

  • (1) Responsibility for assigning and authoring the copyright of the manuscript against the liver cancer society
  • (2) Originality of manuscript
  • (3) payment of the manuscript
  • (4) Approved by IRB / Animal Care Committee
  • (5) Role of research sponsor
  • (6) Financial disclosure
  • (7) Source of research funds

Prohibition of submission of manuscripts from all authors of articles in violation of the Ethics Regulations of the Korean Cancer Society and, if necessary, notify to the authors’ institutions.

Publication of abstracts or posters does not constitute duplicate publication, but must be indicated on the cover sheet when submitting.

For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instructions, ‘Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (https://www.kamje.or.kr/board/view?b_name=bo_publication&bo_id=7&per_page= )’ or ‘Guidelines on good publication ( http://www.publicationethics.org.uk/guidelines )’ can be applied.

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