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42 "Transarterial chemoembolization"
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Original Article
Outcomes of Liver Resection and Transarterial Chemoembolization in Patients with Multinodular BCLC-A Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Jiwon Yang, Won-Mook Choi, Danbi Lee, Ju Hyun Shim, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Han Chu Lee, Deok-Bog Moon, Dong-Hwan Jung, Jonggi Choi
Received March 3, 2024  Accepted March 25, 2024  Published online April 3, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2024.03.25    [Accepted]
  • 750 Views
  • 51 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to compare the outcomes of liver resection (LR) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria who were not eligible for liver transplantation.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 483 patients with multinodular HCC within the Milan criteria, who underwent either LR or TACE as an initial therapy between 2013 and 2022. The overall survival (OS) in the entire population and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients who underwent LR and TACE and achieved a complete response were analyzed. Propensity score (PS) matching analysis was also used for a fair comparison of outcomes between the two groups.
Results
Among the 483 patients, 107 (22.2%) and 376 (77.8%) underwent LR and TACE, respectively. The median size of the largest tumor was 2.0 cm, and 72.3% of the patients had two HCC lesions. The median OS and RFS were significantly longer in the LR group than in the TACE group (p <0.01 for both). In the multivariate analysis, TACE (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.81 and aHR, 2.41) and large tumor size (aHR, 1.43 and aHR, 1.44) were significantly associated with worse OS and RFS, respectively. The PS-matched analysis also demonstrated that the LR group had significantly longer OS and RFS than the TACE group (PS <0.05).
Conclusion
In this study, LR showed better OS and RFS than TACE in patients with multinodular Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC. Therefore, LR can be considered an effective treatment option for these patients.
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Case Report
Complete response to local therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with lung metastasis: a case report
Daeun Kim, Seiyeon Park, Won Sohn, Hyun Pyo Hong, Byung Ik Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2022;22(1):51-56.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2021.12.28
  • 3,486 Views
  • 104 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
The concept of oligometastasis is widely accepted for various types of solid tumors; accordingly, better outcomes can be anticipated with aggressive local interventions. The treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extrahepatic metastasis is systemic therapy. However, treatment responses to systemic therapy are poor. Recently, a small number of metastatic cancers (oligometastasis) have been controlled by local therapy rather than systemic therapy. Our study reports a case of a 66-year-old male patient with advanced HCC with lung metastasis, which was treated with local therapy. There were less than four metastases in the lungs, which were treated with wedge resection, radiofrequency, and radiation therapy. He repeatedly underwent local therapy for lung oligometastasis and locoregional therapy for intrahepatic HCC rather than systemic therapy; control by local therapy was possible as his liver function was preserved with Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A.
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Original Articles
The effect of nucleos(t)ide analogues on clinical outcomes of patients treated with transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation for hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma
Jae Min Park, Won Hyeok Choe, Jeong Han Kim, So Young Kwon, Byung Chul Yoo
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(2):155-162.   Published online September 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2021.09.22
  • 3,731 Views
  • 96 Downloads
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aims
Because hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication has been known to play an important role in cancer recurrence after curative treatment of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we examined whether treatment based on nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) might decrease the recurrence rate and improve patient survival.
Methods
The retrospective cohort study enrolled 73 patients with chronic hepatitis B who were treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with curative intent for HCC. Among those, 30 and 43 patients were treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV), respectively.
Results
Of the 73 patients, 51 experienced HCC recurrence, and 14 patients were dead during a follow-up of 73±34 months. Multivariate analyses showed that tumor size (hazard ratio [HR], 1.590; 95% confidence-interval [CI], 1.106-2.285; P=0.012) and Child-Pugh class B (vs. class A/non cirrhosis; HR, 5.794; 95% CI, 2.311-14.523; P=0.001) was significantly associated with HCC recurrence, and Child-Pugh class B (HR, 7.357; 95% CI, 2.100-25.777; P=0.002) was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for survival. During NAs therapy, TDF was superior to ETV for complete viral response at 1 year after the date of combination of TACE and RFA (P=0.016). However, the risks of HCC recurrence and survival were not significantly different between those treated with TDF versus ETV.
Conclusions
TDF was superior to ETV for achieving complete viral response. However, the recurrence and mortality after TACE and RFA for HBV-related HCC were not significantly different between patients treated with TDF versus ETV.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Enhanced prognosis of HCC patients undergoing radical treatments with tenofovir versus entecavir: A meta-analysis based on propensity score matching studies
    Qingyan Kong, Mengshi Yi, Fei Teng, Zheyu Chen
    Asian Journal of Surgery.2024; 47(1): 55.     CrossRef
  • Tenofovir versus entecavir on the prognosis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Hui Liu, Cheng-Long Han, Bao-Wen Tian, Zi-Niu Ding, Ya-Fei Yang, Yun-Long Ma, Chun-Cheng Yang, Guang-Xiao Meng, Jun-Shuai Xue, Dong-Xu Wang, Zhao-Ru Dong, Zhi-Qiang Chen, Jian-Guo Hong, Tao Li
    Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology.2023; 17(6): 623.     CrossRef
  • A nationwide study on the current treatment status and natural prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in elderly
    Jeong-Ju Yoo, Jayoun Lee, Gi Hong Choi, Min Woo Lee, Dong Ah Park
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Transarterial chemoembolization using drug-eluting bead compared with radiofrequency ablation for treatment of single small hepatocellular carcinoma: a pilot non-randomized trial
Tae Hoon Kim, Na Hye Kim, Jin Dong Kim, Young Nam Kim, Yu Jin Kim, Eun Jung Kim, Ki Deok Yoo, Choong Heon Ryu, Ha Hun Song, Hyun Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(2):146-154.   Published online August 11, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2021.05.20
  • 4,920 Views
  • 141 Downloads
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aims
Surgical resection, transplantation, and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are generally accepted as amenable treatments for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently drug-eluting beads (DEB) which had several treatment advantages were introduced for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and safety of DEB-TACE compared with RFA for the treatment of single small HCC.
Methods
In this pilot non-randomized trial, we assessed retrospective data of 40 patients who underwent DEB-TACE (n=21) or RFA (n=19) for single small (≤3 centimeter in greatest dimension) HCC. The primary outcomes were tumor response and time to recurrence. The secondary outcome was treatment-related complications.
Results
Complete response rate to DEB-TACE and RFA after first follow-up assessment was 90.5% and 94.7%, respectively (P=1.000). During mean follow-up of 87.6 months (95% confidence interval: 74.4-102), 7 patients experienced local recurrence. The 6- and 12-month cumulative local recurrence rate was 5.0% and 21.8% in DEB-TACE vs. 11.1% and 17.0% in RFA group (P=0.877). A total 14 distant intrahepatic recurrences were developed and 12- and 24-month cumulative distant intrahepatic recurrence rate was 20.6% and 42.7% in DEBTACE vs. 17.2% and 36.3% in RFA group (P=0.844). Two patients experienced gangrenous cholecystitis after DEB-TACE requiring cholecystectomy as treatment-related adverse event.
Conclusions
Tumor response and recurrence rate after single session of DEB-TACE or RFA were similar. DEB-TACE could be applied selectively in patients with a single small HCC if the other therapeutic modality is unfeasible.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Incidence and Risk Factors of Acute Ischemic Cholecystitis after Transarterial Chemoembolization: Correlation with Cone Beam CT Findings
    Jong Yeong Kim, Jung Suk Oh, Ho Jong Chun, Su Ho Kim
    Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology.2024; 85(2): 363.     CrossRef
  • Drug-Eluting Bead Transarterial Chemoembolization Versus Radiofrequency Ablation as an Initial Treatment of Single Small (≤ 3 cm) Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Somin Lee, Yong Yeon Jeong, Byung Chan Lee, Sang Soo Shin, Suk Hee Heo, Hyoung Ook Kim, Chan Park, Won Gi Jeong
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparable Outcomes in Early Hepatocellular Carcinomas Treated with Trans-Arterial Chemoembolization and Radiofrequency Ablation
    Benjamin Wei Rong Tay, Daniel Q. Huang, Muthiah Mark, Neo Wee Thong, Lee Guan Huei, Lim Seng Gee, Low How Cheng, Lee Yin Mei, Prem Thurairajah, Lim Jia Chen, Cheng Han Ng, Wen Hui Lim, Darren Jun Hao Tan, Da Costa Maureen, Kow Wei Chieh Alfred, Iyer Shrid
    Biomedicines.2022; 10(10): 2361.     CrossRef
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Case Reports
Rare Case of Pyogenic Brain Abscess after Transarterial Chemoembolization in a Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review
Jun-Ho Myeong, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(1):81-86.   Published online March 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.21.1.81
  • 3,042 Views
  • 70 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a useful treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TACE can particularly be used as a treatment for localized HCC, where surgical resection is impossible due to decreased liver function. However, TACE is associated with several complications, including vascular complications, liver failure, non-target embolization, infection, and death. The main risk factor for complications after TACE is decreased liver function. There have been only few reports of brain abscesses after TACE that are difficult to be distinguished from hepatic encephalopathy. Here, we report a rare case of brain abscess caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae that occurred after TACE.
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Ruptured Massive Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cured by Transarterial Chemoembolization
Ji Eun Lee, Joong-Won Park, In Joon Lee, Bo Hyun Kim, Seoung Hoon Kim, Hyun Beom Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2020;20(2):154-159.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.20.2.154
  • 3,320 Views
  • 66 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Spontaneous tumor rupture is a serious but rare complication of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and has a low survival rate. Here, we report a case of massive HCC that ruptured and was treated successfully with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). A 55-year-old man with abdominal pain was diagnosed with a 12-cm-wide ruptured HCC at segment 8. The overall liver function was scored as Child–Pugh A, but the single nodule tumor had ruptured; therefore, TACE treatment was initiated. After the first TACE treatment, residual tumors were found; thus, secondary TACE was performed 5 months later. No new lesions or extrahepatic metastases were found 16 months after the first TACE treatment, so hepatic resection was performed for curative treatment. The postoperative pathology results did not reveal any cancer cells; hence, TACE alone resulted in a cure. We report this case because the cure has been maintained for more than 3 years after resection.
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Review Article
Is Transarterial Chemoembolization Only Treatment Option in Patients with Intermediate Stage of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?: in Perspectives of Surgery
Ji Young Lim, Minjong Lee, Tae Hun Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2020;20(2):113-119.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.20.2.113
  • 4,255 Views
  • 134 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
In the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is defined as large multinodular tumors without vascular invasion or extrahepatic spread in an asymptomatic patient with good performance status. Intermediate stage HCC includes various subgroups and it is characterized by extensive heterogeneity. Current guidelines recommend transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as the standard treatment modality for patients with intermediate stage HCC. Although TACE provides improved survival benefits compared with supportive care for patients with intermediate stage HCC, all of them are not good candidates for TACE. TACE refractoriness is another obstacle to effective treatment of patients with intermediate stage HCC. Given that many studies recently reported improved survival in patients treated with hepatic resection over TACE, we reviewed the survival outcomes of TACE and hepatic resection as a treatment strategy of intermediate stage HCC.
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Original Article
Tenofovir and Entecavir Have Similar Renal Adverse Events on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Transarterial Chemoembolization
Young Youn Cho, Young Hwan Choi, Su Jong Yu, Eun Ju Cho, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon
J Liver Cancer. 2019;19(2):128-135.   Published online September 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.19.2.128
  • 4,105 Views
  • 50 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/Aims
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is potentially nephrotoxic in chronic hepatitis B patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated using transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) are at an increased risk of renal injury. The aim of this study was to determine whether TDF is associated with more renal adverse events than entecavir (ETV) in HCC patients treated with TACE.
Methods
In this retrospective single-center study, we selected 53 HCC patients who were treated with TDF from January 2012 to July 2013 and had their first TACE procedure in the same period. These patients were matched by age and sex to patients treated with ETV.
Results
There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, including HCC factors, and nephrotoxic drug use, between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 17.0 and 20.0 months for the TDF and ETV groups, respectively. There was no difference during the follow-up period between the TDF and ETV groups in the increase in creatinine over 0.5 mg/dL (17.0% and 17.0%, P=1.00, respectively) and the decrease in eGFR over 25% (43.4% and 41.5%, P=0.84, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that Child-Pugh class over B (hazard ratio [HR], 7.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.79-19.10; P<0.01) was associated with increase in creatinine, and Child-Pugh class over B (HR, 82.74; 95% CI 12.31-555.83; P<0.01) and Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer stage over B (HR, 14.93; 95% CI 1.60-139.51; P=0.02) were associated with decrease in eGFR.
Conclusions
TDF has comparable safety to that of ETV for HCC patients undergoing TACE.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Big Data Information under Proportional Hazard Mathematical Model in Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Data of Patients with Interventional Liver Cancer through Antiviral Therapy of Entecavir
    Yichi Zhang, Shuai Zhao, Han Ding, Xiaoling Song, Huijie Miao, Xuya Cui, Jian Wang, Bing Han, Enas Abdulhay
    Journal of Healthcare Engineering.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
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Case Reports
Complete Remission with Transarterial Chemoembolization in a Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Who Showed Early Recurrence following Surgical Resection
Kim, Hee Yeon , Kim, Chang Wook , Kim, Sungkeun , Lee, Soo Lim , Ku, Young Mi , Won, Yoo Dong
J Liver Cancer. 2018;18(2):162-167.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.18.2.162
  • 1,796 Views
  • 28 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Although surgical resection is a curative treatment option for solitary hepatocellular carcinoma, high recurrence rate contributes to dismal long-term prognosis after curative resection. Early recurrence within 2 years after surgery is associated with intrahepatic metastasis of primary tumor. Liver regeneration after hepatic resection can accelerate tumorigenesis in remnant liver. Treatment strategies for intrahepatic recurrence after curative resection include salvage transplantation, repeated resection, local ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Here, we report a 51-year-old male who was presented with a single large tumor located at segment 4. The patient was initially treated with surgical resection, but intrahepatic recurrence occurred only 4 months after surgery. He achieved complete remission with repeated TACE and has survived without recurrence for 4 years so far.
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A Case of Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Who Showed Complete Response by Combined Therapy of Transarterial Chemoembolization and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy
Cha, Jun Young , Jun, Baek Gyu , Gong, Eun Jeong , Seo, Hyun Il , Park, Jong Kyu , Lee, Sang Jin , Kim, Young Don , Han, Koon Hee , Jeong, Woo Jin , Cheon, Gab Jin , Choi, Won Sik
J Liver Cancer. 2018;18(2):157-161.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.18.2.157
  • 2,057 Views
  • 27 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), surgical resection or local ablation therapy is limited because of severe liver dysfunction or tumor location. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has beed used widely as palliative treatment. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) is a more recent and effective treatment for early stage HCC. We report a case with small HCC with complete response by TACE combined with SBRT.
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A Case of Achieving Partial Remission with Sequential Treatment of Transarterial Chemoemoblization after Transarterial Radioembolization in Old Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Multiple Metastasis
Hwang, Sang Youn , Lee, Seon Mi , Im, Jung Woo , Jeon, Ki Jeong , Ahn, Sang Bu , Park, Jin Young
J Liver Cancer. 2018;18(2):151-156.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.18.2.151
  • 1,741 Views
  • 22 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
The number of older adults with hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) has been increasing with longer life expectancy and earlier diagnosis and treatment. However, older patients have lesser function reserve of multiple organ systems, more disability rate. Therefore, the treatment of elderly HCC patients remains a challenge worldwide. Recently, studies suggests that the survival outcome of older patients may be comparable to that of younger patients and active treatment may achieve promising rates of local and systemic control in selected patients. Based on above suggestions, we herein offer our experience of a case achieved partial remission by sequential therapy of transarterial chemoembolization after transarterial radioemoblization in elderly HCC patient with multiple metastasis. Further study, maybe regarding a combination of locoregional and systemic treatment, is necessary on how to manage HCC in elderly patients.
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Review Articles
The Role of Combination of Transarterial Chemoebolization and Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment
Byoung Kuk Jang
J Liver Cancer. 2017;17(1):15-18.   Published online March 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.17.1.15
  • 1,428 Views
  • 26 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Recently, various combination therapies have been applied to the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among various treatment modalities, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) were combined to improve the therapeutic effect of RFA. The decrease of blood flow by TACE can increase the size of the ablation area by reducing heat loss during RFA. Based on these theoretical advantages, TACE and RFA combination therapy have been tried for the treatment of patients with HCC which is not feasible to be removed by surgery. However, TACE and RFA combination therapy has not been standardized by various protocols for each study. This review discusses the implications and role of this treatment, although there are several limitations to clearly demonstrate the indications and efficacy of TACE and RFA combination therapies.
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Transarterial Chemoembolization in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Extrahepatic Metastasis
Jin Su Kim, Su Cheol Park
J Liver Cancer. 2016;16(2):82-85.   Published online September 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.16.2.82
  • 1,402 Views
  • 17 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been widely performed as a treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently extrahepatic metastasis (EHM) of HCC is increasing due to improvement of survival. Sorafenib has been generally accepted as a standard treatment in advanced HCC. However, many HCC patients with EHM are treated with TACE in real-world clinical practice because sorafenib has modest efficacy and the main cause of death in the patients with EHM is hepatic failure. In this review, the usefulness of TACE for the patients with HCC and EHM will be discussed.
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Case Report
A Case of Achieving Complete Remission with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Macrovascular Invasion after Repeated Transarerial Chemoembolization
Sang Youn Hwang, Seon-Mi Lee, Jong Woo Im, Ki Jeong Jeon, Sang Bu Ahn, Eun Kyeong Ji, Jin-Young Park, Cheol-Won Choi Choi, Gwang-Mo Yang
J Liver Cancer. 2016;16(2):123-128.   Published online September 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.16.2.123
  • 1,192 Views
  • 8 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the worldwide procedure performed for patients with various stage hepatoceullar carcinoma (HCC), but is not yet considered as curative treatment because of relatively high local recurrence rate. Moreover, many clinicians frequently experience treatment failure (incomplete necrosis or stage progression etc.) after repeated TACE, but no clear guidelines have been recommended about salvage treatment modalities for this situation. Recently, studies for combination of radiation therapy and TACE for HCC with TACE refractoriness have been tried and reported better therapeutic efficacy. Based on above suggestions, we herein offer our experience of a patient with macrovascular invasion developed after repeated TACE that achieve complete remission by stereotactic body radiation therapy. Further study, maybe regarding a combination of locoregional and systemic therapy, is necessary on how to manage HCC patients with TACE refractoriness.
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Review Article
An A to Z of Lipiodol Beyond the Clinical Practice in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Eileen L. Yoon
J Liver Cancer. 2015;15(2):84-97.   Published online September 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.15.2.84
  • 1,282 Views
  • 8 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Lipiodol based conventional transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a standard of care for unresectable, non-invasive, and multinodular Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)s. The procedure relies on the intra-arterial administration of lipiodol/cytotoxic agent emulsion followed by the infusion of embolic material. Lipiodol, with its oily nature and radiopacifying properties, is in the center of the TACE procedure. Unstability and unpredictable therapeutic effect of hydrophilic cytotoxic drugs emulsified in the lipiodol and technical problems lie beyond the control of clinicians. Thus, interest in the properties and respective roles for lipiodol in the management of HCC is essential for the clinicians. (J Liver Cancer 2015;15:84-87)
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JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer