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11 "Radioembolization"
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Case Report
Concurrent transarterial radioembolization and combination atezolizumab/ bevacizumab treatment of infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis: a case report
Min Kyung Park, Su Jong Yu
J Liver Cancer. 2022;22(1):69-74.   Published online March 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2022.03.09
  • 3,740 Views
  • 112 Downloads
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Treatment options for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been rapidly evolving. Herein, we describe a patient with advanced HCC and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) who responded decisively to a multidisciplinary approach. The patient had an ill-defined infiltrative HCC (diffuse subtype), with several intrahepatic metastasis and tumor invasion of left portal vein. Concurrent use of transarterial radioembolization (TARE) and systemic therapeutics (atezolizumab + bevacizumab) ultimately proved successful. There was marked reduction in tumor volume after TARE and an additional three cycles of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. This concurrent treatment was well tolerated, without adverse events during immunotherapy. The impressive results achieved suggest that concurrent TARE and combination atezolizumab/bevacizumab is a promising treatment approach for advanced HCC with PVTT.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Biologics, Immunotherapies, and Cytotoxic Chemotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma following Current Recommendations by the BCLC: A Review of Agents
    Rajangad S. Gurtatta, Sydney E. Whalen, Charles E. Ray
    Seminars in Interventional Radiology.2024; 41(01): 084.     CrossRef
  • Combining immunotherapy with transarterial radioembolization
    ZeynepCeren Balaban Genc, Efe Soydemır, SevalAy Ersoy, Tunc Ones
    Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine.2023; 38(2): 145.     CrossRef
  • The New Era of Systemic Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: From the First Line to the Optimal Sequence
    Maria Cerreto, Ferdinando Cardone, Lucia Cerrito, Leonardo Stella, Francesco Santopaolo, Maria Pallozzi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Francesca Romana Ponziani
    Current Oncology.2023; 30(10): 8774.     CrossRef
  • Is multidisciplinary treatment effective for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus?
    Won Hyeok Choe
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2022; 22(1): 1.     CrossRef
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Review Article
Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: what clinicians need to know
Jin Woo Choi, Hyo-Cheol Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2022;22(1):4-13.   Published online February 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2022.01.16
  • 9,437 Views
  • 488 Downloads
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium 90 (90Y) has been used in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for more than 10 years in Korea. There are two types of 90Y radioactive microspheres available, namely, glass and resin microspheres, with comparable clinical outcomes. In general, TARE outperforms transarterial chemoembolization regarding post-embolization syndrome, time to progression, tumor downsizing for liver transplantation, and hospitalization stay. Although TARE is commonly recommended for patients with unresectable large HCCs, it can be an alternative to or performed in combination with ablation, surgical resection, and systemic treatment. This review aimed to address 90Y radioactive microspheres, patient selection, clinical outcomes, simulation tests, radioembolization procedures, follow-up imaging, and complications.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Unlocking Precision in Radioembolization: Navigating the Future of Holmium-166 Radioembolization Mapping and Lung Shunt Study by Implementing Scout Dosimetry
    Peiman Habibollahi, Armeen Mahvash, Nima Kokabi, Nariman Nezami
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology.2024; 47(4): 451.     CrossRef
  • Feasibility of Liver Transplantation after 90Y Radioembolization: Lessons from a Radiation Protection Incident
    Marine Soret, Jacques-Antoine Maisonobe, Philippe Maksud, Stéphane Payen, Manon Allaire, Eric Savier, Charles Roux, Charlotte Lussey-Lepoutre, Aurélie Kas
    Health Physics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Liver-Directed Locoregional Therapies for Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Recent Advances and Management
    Cody R. Criss, Mina S. Makary
    Current Oncology.2024; 31(4): 2076.     CrossRef
  • Selective internal radiation therapy segmentectomy: A new minimally invasive curative option for primary liver malignancies?
    Riccardo Inchingolo, Francesco Cortese, Antonio Rosario Pisani, Fabrizio Acquafredda, Roberto Calbi, Riccardo Memeo, Fotis Anagnostopoulos, Stavros Spiliopoulos
    World Journal of Gastroenterology.2024; 30(18): 2379.     CrossRef
  • Transarterial chemoembolization as an alternative to radioembolization is associated with earlier tumor recurrence than in radioembolization-eligible patients
    Sung Won Chung, Heejin Cho, Hyunjae Shin, Jeayeon Park, Ju Yeon Kim, Ji Hoon Hong, Moon Haeng Hur, Min Kyung Park, Yun Bin Lee, Su Jong Yu, Myungsu Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, Jin Chul Paeng, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Jin Wook Chung, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Hyo-Cheol Kim
    Frontiers in Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The evolution of immune checkpoint inhibitor combinations in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma – A systematic review
    Brandon M. Meyers, Jennifer J. Knox, David M. Liu, Deanna McLeod, Ravi Ramjeesingh, Vincent C. Tam, Howard J. Lim
    Cancer Treatment Reviews.2023; 118: 102584.     CrossRef
  • Recent Advances in Image-Guided Locoregional Therapies for Primary Liver Tumors
    Cody R. Criss, Mina S. Makary
    Biology.2023; 12(7): 999.     CrossRef
  • Multidisciplinary consensus recommendations for management of hepatocellular carcinoma in Middle East and North Africa region
    Imam Waked, Sherif Alsammany, Sayed Hammad Tirmazy, Kakil Rasul, Jafar Bani‐Issa, Wael Abdel‐Razek, Ashraf Omar, Amr Shafik, Salem Eid, Amr Abdelaal, Ahmed Hosni, Gamal Esmat
    Liver International.2023; 43(10): 2062.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Low Skeletal Muscle Mass on Long-Term Outcomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Trans-Arterial Radioembolization: A Retrospective Multi-Center Study
    Heechul Nam, Hyun Yang, Ho Soo Chun, Han Ah Lee, Joon Yeul Nam, Jeong Won Jang, Yeon Seok Seo, Do Young Kim, Yoon Jun Kim, Si Hyun Bae
    Cancers.2023; 15(21): 5195.     CrossRef
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Case Reports
Advanced Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Successfully Treated with Liver-directed Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy and Sequential Transarterial Radio-embolization
Minho Noh, Beom Kyung Kim, Seung Up Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(1):97-103.   Published online March 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.21.1.97
  • 3,371 Views
  • 79 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Optimal treatment strategies for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is yet to be determined. Herein, we present a case of advanced HCC with tumor invasion into the right anterior portal vein and right hepatic vein where complete response (CR) was achieved via a multidisciplinary approach. This patient had a 10.5 cm-sized HCC invading segment VI, without extrahepatic spread. Liver function was classified as Child-Pugh class A, and the performance status was good. Transarterial radio-embolization (TARE) was performed 6 weeks after the completion of liver-directed concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and CR was confirmed 3 months post-TARE. Adoptive cell therapies were performed as adjuvant therapy and CR was maintained for over 15 months, until the local recurrence of a 2 cm-sized HCC was found. Therefore, in selected cases with preserved liver function, combination therapies, including LRTs and systemic therapy, can be a useful therapeutic option for advanced HCC.
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Advanced Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Successfully Treated with Transarterial Radioembolization and Multi-tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy
Myung Ji Goh, Wonseok Kang, Dong Hyun Sinn, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung Woon Paik
J Liver Cancer. 2020;20(2):160-166.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.20.2.160
  • 3,784 Views
  • 136 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium-90 microspheres has become widely utilized in managing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The utility of TARE is expanding with new insights through experiences from real-world practice and clinical trials, and recently published data suggest that TARE in combination with sorafenib may improve the overall survival in selected patients. Here, we report a case of advanced stage HCC that was successfully treated with TARE and sorafenib. The patient achieved complete response (CR) at 12 months after the initial treatment with TARE and sorafenib, followed by additional transarterial chemoembolization and proton beam therapy for local tumor recurrence at 19-month post-TARE. The patient was followed up every 3 months thereafter and still achieved CR both biochemically and radiologically for the following 12 months. A combination strategy of TARE and systemic therapy may be a useful alternative treatment option for selected patients with advanced stage HCC.
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Review Articles
Treatments Other than Sorafenib for Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Do Seon Song, Si Hyun Bae
J Liver Cancer. 2016;16(1):1-6.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.16.1.1
  • 1,248 Views
  • 19 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDF
Sorafenib is the standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. However, because of its unsatisfactory efficacy, adverse effects, and high cost, the use of sorafenib is limited, and other treatment modalities are required. Recent studies reported that treatment modalities other than sorafenib, such as hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and transarterial radioembolization, showed comparable or better response rates and survival rates than sorafenib. In this review, treatment modalities that could be used as alternatives to sorafenib will be discussed. (J Liver Cancer 2016;16:1-6)

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Phase I Radiation Dose-Escalation Study to Investigate the Dose-Limiting Toxicity of Concurrent Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Yeona Cho, Jun Won Kim, Ja Kyung Kim, Kwan Sik Lee, Jung Il Lee, Hyun Woong Lee, Kwang-Hun Lee, Seung-Moon Joo, Jin Hong Lim, Ik Jae Lee
    Cancers.2020; 12(6): 1612.     CrossRef
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Role of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Do Young Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2015;15(1):11-18.   Published online March 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.15.1.11
  • 1,094 Views
  • 8 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Yttrium-90 radioembolization has emerged as a novel therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of intermediate or advanced stage. Yttrium-90 has characteristics of short half-life and tissue penetration depth. Potent anti-cancer effect by this isotope enables to kill the tumor for 6 months after administration. Although transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard modality for multinodular HCC without vascular invasion, big size or numerous nodules does not allow enough treatment effect of TACE. Post-embolization syndrome resulting poor quality of life, liver dysfunction and hepatic arterial damage are other pitfalls of TACE. In several studies, radioembolization showed survival comparable to TACE, shorter hospital stay and less treatment sessions. In advanced HCC with portal vein invasion, radioembolization demonstrated similar or better survival compared with sorafenib. The atrophy of lobe treated by radioembolization and hypertrophy in the contralateral lobe can be called radiation lobectomy, which makes it possible to perform a following curative therapy. The role of radioembolization in unresectable HCC in terms of downstaging or bridge to transplantation needs to be further studied. Radioembolization is contraindicated in HCC patients with main portal vein occlusion and with poor liver function. The International guidelines for HCC have some limitations and thus rooms for radioembolization to be incorporated.
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Radioembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Ho Jong Chun
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2014;14(1):1-6.   Published online March 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.14.1.1
  • 1,061 Views
  • 27 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Radioembolization is an emerging treatment modality in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is a form of brachytherapy in which intra-arterially injected Ytrrium-90 microspheres are used for internal radiation purpose. Ytrrium-90 is a high energy beta particle-emitting radioisotope. Ytrrium-90 microspheres administered via arterial route direct the highly concentrated radiation to the tumor while normal liver parenchyma is relatively spared due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. Main complications do not result from the microembolic effect, even in patients with portal vein thrombosis, but rather from an excessive irradiation to the non-target tissues including the liver. All the evidence that support the use of radioembolization in HCC is based on retrospective series or non-controlled prospective studies. However, reliable data can be obtained from the literature, particularly since the recent publication of large series. When compared to the standard of treatment for the intermediate and advanced stages (TACE and sorafenib), radioembolization consistently provides similar survival rates. Many randomized controlled trials using radioembolization are underway and will provide optimal evidences as standard treatment for unresectable HCC.
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Transarterial Approach in Early Stage HCC: From Palliative Therapy to Curative Therapy
Jung Suk Oh, Ho Jong Chun
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2012;12(2):93-96.   Published online September 30, 2012
  • 587 Views
  • 3 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on BCLC staging system can be curatively treated by liver transplantation, surgical resection or percutaneous ablation. However, transarterial approaches, including transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or transarterial radioembolization (TARE), are standard of care for intermediate stage HCC and can be an alternative treatment in the patients with early stage HCC which are unresectable, unsuitable for percutaneous ablation, or not eligible for liver transplantation. Many previous TACE studies in early stage HCC revealed that the overall survival rate was competitive with those of curative therapies considering their operation risks, but recurrence-free survival rate was significantly lower than curative therapies. Moreover, the histopathologic reports about TACE in early stage HCC demonstrated that only 38% of the HCC nodules were completely necrotic after TACE and only 81% of the nodules with complete response by EASL criteria showed complete necrosis. Although there is no long-term survival data about TARE in early stage HCC, a histopathologic report about TARE showed that 73% of the HCC nodules were completely necrotic after TARE and 100% of the nodules with complete response by EASL criteria showed complete necrosis. In conclusion, TACE is now limited to be categorized into a curative therapy in early stage HCC, according to the previous data about TACE. However, new recent technologies including C-arm CT, superselective embolization technique, drug-eluting bead (DEB) may sufficiently improve the survival data of TACE to prove its curative role. Considering its RFA-comparable histopathologic tumor response, TARE may prove to be a potential curative therapeutic for early stage HCC.
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Case Reports
A Case of Combination Therapy Using Radioembolization and Transarterial Chemoembolization with Drug-eluting Beads in Bilobar Hepatocellular Carcinomas
Hee Yeon Kim, Chung-Hwa Park, Do Seon Song, Myeong Jun Song, Jong Young Choi, Seung Kew Yoon, Si Hyun Bae, Ho Jung Chun
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2012;12(2):128-132.   Published online September 30, 2012
  • 581 Views
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Bilobar multifocal hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) can be treated with transarterial radioembolization in a sequential lobar, or whole liver manner. However, radioembolization could result in a risk of radiation-induced liver toxicity in patients with reduced functional reserve. Here we describe a case with bilobar HCCs successfully treated with a combination therapy using radioembolization and transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads without significant side effects. A 72-year-old female with liver cirrhosis was diagnosed of hepatocellular carcinoma with bilobar involvement. The main mass in the left lobe was treated with radioembolization while the other lesion in the right lobe was treated with transarterial chemoembolization using drug-eluting beads, and the patient was tolerable. A combination of radioembolization and selective transarterial chemoem- bolization may be considered for an alternative option in patients with bilobar multifocal HCCs with decreased liver function.
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A Case of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a 10 Year Old Child Treated with Yttrium Radioembolization and Transarterial Chemoembolization
Sung Won Lee, Hee Yeon Kim, Do Seon Song, Chung-Hwa Park, Myeong Jun Song, Jong Young Choi, Seung Kew Yoon, Jung Suk Oh, Ho Jong Chun, Si Hyun Bae
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2012;12(2):137-140.   Published online September 30, 2012
  • 569 Views
  • 4 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in childhood is rare but is the second most common malignant liver neoplasm after hepatoblastoma in children. Surgical resectability is the foundation of curative therapy but only one third of newly diagnosed HCCs are resectable, and unresectable HCC remains largely unresponsive to systemic chemotherapy. In all reported series of HCC in children, therapeutic results are poor with overall survival less than 30%. Systemic chemotherapy is only partially effective but if preoperative downstaging can be achieved, it would result in a higher survival rate. There are scarce data regarding local ablative treatments such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and therefore survival benefits are still unclear. TACE may be considered as a therapeutic alternative in cases of unresectable tumors after systemic chemotherapy or in unresectable, non-metastatic HCCs. The use of orthotopic liver transplantation in childhood HCC remains controversial. Radioembolization is a mode of treatment that aims to selectively target radiation to all liver tumors using yttrium-90 microspheres while limiting the dose to normal liver parenchyma. It may be considered as another treatment option in childhood HCC with the purpose of preoperative downstaging but further studies are required to determine the treatment benefits and safety of radioembolization treatment.
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Review Article
Radioembolization of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Yun Hwan Joseph Kim, Sung Bum Cho, Hwan Hoon Chung
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2010;10(1):29-34.   Published online June 30, 2010
  • 507 Views
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) using Yttrium-90 (Y-90) microspheres is emerging as a mainstream treatment modality in the management of patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer. Yttrium-90 is a high energy beta particle emitting radioisotope. The intellectual basis of Y-90 microsphere treatment is the preferential distribution of microspheres, when injected in the hepatic artery, yielding much higher concentrations in the tumor compartment than the normal liver parenchyma. The technique involves the administration of Y-90 microspheres into the hepatic artery accessed via transfemoral route, showing almost similar procedure with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). The Y-90 microspheres are entrapped within the microvasculature, and release beta radiation. The high tumor to liver concentration ratio results in an effective tumoricidal radiation absorbed dose whilst limiting the radiation injury to the normal liver. With such a therapeutic mechanism of this method, Y-90 microspheres have been used as a treatment modality both for primary HCC and for pre-transplant management of HCC with promising results. But preliminary evidence also suggests that the TACE and TARE provided similar effectiveness and toxicity in patients with unresectable HCC. In conclusion, we think that prospective, randomized controlled trials using current therapies are needed to better define optimal management of unresectable HCC.
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JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer