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12 "Magnetic resonance imaging"
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Review Article
Radiologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma related to prognosis
Shin Hye Hwang, Hyungjin Rhee
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(1):143-156.   Published online March 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.02.16
  • 2,423 Views
  • 126 Downloads
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The cross-sectional imaging findings play a crucial role in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies have shown that imaging findings of HCC are not only relevant for the diagnosis of HCC, but also for identifying genetic and pathologic characteristics and determining prognosis. Imaging findings such as rim arterial phase hyperenhancement, arterial phase peritumoral hyperenhancement, hepatobiliary phase peritumoral hypointensity, non-smooth tumor margin, low apparent diffusion coefficient, and the LR-M category of the Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis. In contrast, imaging findings such as enhancing capsule appearance, hepatobiliary phase hyperintensity, and fat in mass have been reported to be associated with a favorable prognosis. Most of these imaging findings were examined in retrospective, single-center studies that were not adequately validated. However, the imaging findings can be applied for deciding the treatment strategy for HCC, if their significance can be confirmed by a large multicenter study. In this literature, we would like to review imaging findings related to the prognosis of HCC as well as their associated clinicopathological characteristics.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Radiomics and machine learning based on preoperative MRI for predicting extrahepatic metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with transarterial chemoembolization
    Gang Peng, Xiaojing Cao, Xiaoyu Huang, Xiang Zhou
    European Journal of Radiology Open.2024; 12: 100551.     CrossRef
  • A Nomogram Based on MRI Visual Decision Tree to Evaluate Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Hanting Dai, Chuan Yan, Wanrong Huang, Yifan Pan, Feng Pan, Yamei Liu, Shunli Wang, Huifang Wang, Rongping Ye, Yueming Li
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Parameters Work Well as Predictive Factors for Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab Treatment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Ji Yeon Lee, Pil Soo Sung
    Gut and Liver.2024; 18(4): 558.     CrossRef
  • Imaging prognostication and tumor biology in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Diana Kadi, Marilyn F. Yamamoto, Emily C. Lerner, Hanyu Jiang, Kathryn J. Fowler, Mustafa R. Bashir
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2023; 23(2): 284.     CrossRef
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Original Article
Diagnostic performance of the 2022 KLCA-NCC criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma on magnetic resonance imaging with extracellular contrast and hepatobiliary agents: comparison with the 2018 KLCA-NCC criteria
Ja Kyung Yoon, Sunyoung Lee, Jeong Ah Hwang, Ji Eun Lee, Seung-seob Kim, Myeong-Jin Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2023;23(1):157-165.   Published online February 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.2023.02.07
  • 1,929 Views
  • 101 Downloads
  • 1 Citation
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background/Aim
This study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of 2022 Korean Liver Cancer Association-National Cancer Center (KLCA-NCC) imaging criteria compared with the 2018 KLCA-NCC for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in high-risk patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods
This retrospective study included 415 treatment-naïve patients (152 patients who underwent extracellular contrast agent [ECA]-MRI and 263 who underwent hepatobiliary agent [HBA]-MRI; 535 lesions, including 412 HCCs) with a high risk of HCC who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI. Two readers evaluated all lesions according to the 2018 and 2022 KLCA-NCC imaging diagnostic criteria, and the per-lesion diagnostic performances were compared.
Results
In “definite” HCC category of both 2018 and 2022 KLCA-NCC, HBA-MRI showed a significantly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of HCC than ECA-MRI (77.0% vs. 64.3%, P=0.006) without a significant difference in specificity (94.7% vs. 95.7%, P=0.801). On ECAMRI, “definite” or “probable” HCC categories of the 2022 KLCA-NCC had significantly higher sensitivity than those of the 2018 KLCA-NCC (85.3% vs. 78.3%, P=0.002) with identical specificity (93.6%). On HBA-MRI, the sensitivity and specificity of “definite” or “probable” HCC categories of both 2018 and 2022 KLCA-NCC were not significantly different (83.3% vs. 83.6%, P>0.999 and 92.1% vs. 90.8%, P>0.999, respectively).
Conclusions
In “definite” HCC category of both 2018 and 2022 KLCA-NCC, HBA-MRI provides better sensitivity than ECA-MRI without compromising specificity. On ECA-MRI, “definite” or “probable” HCC categories of the 2022 KLCA-NCC may improve sensitivity in the diagnosis of HCC compared with the 2018 KLCA-NCC.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of the updated KLCA-NCC criteria for diagnosis of “probable HCC” in liver MRI: comparisons between KLCA v2022 and v2018
    Jeong Hee Yoon
    Journal of Liver Cancer.2023; 23(1): 124.     CrossRef
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Review Article
Update on Pathologic and Radiologic Diagnosis of Combined Hepatocellular-Cholangiocarcinoma
Hyungjin Rhee, Jae Hyon Park, Young Nyun Park
J Liver Cancer. 2021;21(1):12-24.   Published online March 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.21.1.12
  • 6,402 Views
  • 314 Downloads
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) is a malignant primary liver carcinoma characterized by the unequivocal presence of both hepatocytic and cholangiocytic differentiation within the same tumor. Recent research has highlighted that cHCC-CCAs are more heterogeneous than previously expected. In the updated consensus terminology and WHO 2019 classification, “classical type” and “subtypes with stem-cell features” of the WHO 2010 classification are no longer recommended. Instead, it is recommended that the presence and percentages of various histopathologic components and stem-cell features be mentioned in the pathologic report. The new terminology and classification enable the exchange of clearer and more objective information about cHCC-CCAs, facilitating multi-center and multinational research. However, there are limitations to the diagnosis of cHCC-CCA by imaging and biopsy. cHCC-CCAs showing typical imaging findings of HCC could be misdiagnosed as HCC and subjected to inappropriate treatment, if other clinical findings are not sufficiently considered. cHCC-CCAs showing at least one of the CCA-like imaging features or unusual clinical features should be subjected to biopsy. There may be a sampling error for the biopsy diagnosis of cHCC-CCA. An optimized diagnostic algorithm integrating clinical, radiological, and histopathologic information of biopsy is required to resolve these diagnostic pitfalls.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Enhancing liver cirrhosis varices and CSPH risk prediction with spleen stiffness measurement using 100-Hz probe
    Jeong-Ju Yoo, Sun Ah Maeng, Young Chang, Sae Hwan Lee, Soung Won Jeong, Jae Young Jang, Gab Jin Cheon, Young Seok Kim, Hong Soo Kim, Sang Gyune Kim
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • MRI features of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma
    Noor Fatima Majeed, Mathew Macey, Marta Braschi Amirfarzan, Sheida Sharifi, Jeremy R Wortman
    Abdominal Radiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Differentiation between hepatic angiomyolipoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals who are not at-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Sungtae Park, Myeong-Jin Kim, Kyunghwa Han, Jae Hyon Park, Dai Hoon Han, Young Nyun Park, Jaehyo Kim, Hyungjin Rhee
    European Journal of Radiology.2023; 166: 110957.     CrossRef
  • The Human TOR Signaling Regulator Is the Key Indicator of Liver Cancer Patients’ Overall Survival: TIPRL/LC3/CD133/CD44 as Potential Biomarkers for Early Liver Cancers
    Soo Young Jun, Hyang Ran Yoon, Ji-Yong Yoon, Su-Jin Jeon, Jeong-Ju Lee, Debasish Halder, Jin-Man Kim, Nam-Soon Kim
    Cancers.2021; 13(12): 2925.     CrossRef
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Original Article
Validation of the Korean Liver Cancer Association-National Cancer Center 2018 Criteria for the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Sunyoung Lee, Myeong-Jin Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2020;20(2):120-127.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.20.2.120
  • 3,173 Views
  • 88 Downloads
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/Aims
This study aimed to assess the validity and diagnostic performance of the imaging criteria of Korean Liver Cancer Association-National Cancer Center (KLCA-NCC) 2018 using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk patients for HCC.
Methods
This retrospective study included 142 treatment-naïve patients (81 patients who underwent MRI with extracellular contrast agent and 61 who underwent MRI with hepatobiliary agent; 183 lesions including 149 HCCs) with a high risk of HCC who underwent multiphasic contrast-enhanced MRI from January to December 2015. All lesions were categorized according to the KLCA-NCC 2018 imaging diagnostic criteria by two readers, and per-lesion diagnostic performances were compared.
Results
According to the KLCA-NCC 2018, none (0%) of the 13 benign category lesions, 11 (44.0%) of 25 indeterminate category lesions, 15 (93.8%) of 16 probable HCC category lesions, and 97 (99.0%) of 98 definite HCC category lesions were ultimately diagnosed as HCCs. The sensitivity and specificity of definite HCC category were 65.1% and 97.1%, respectively, and those of the combination of definite and probable HCC categories were 75.2% and 94.1%, respectively. The sensitivity of the combination of definite and probable HCC categories was significantly higher than that of definite HCC (P<0.001), but the specificity was not significantly lower (P>0.999).
Conclusions
The noninvasive imaging diagnosis of KLCA-NCC 2018 on MRI is reliable and useful for diagnosing HCC in high-risk patients. Combining definite and probable HCC categories of KLCA-NCC 2018 improves the sensitivity while maintaining a high specificity.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Intraindividual Comparison of MRIs with Extracellular and Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents for the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using the Korean Liver Cancer Association–National Cancer Center 2022 Criteria
    Ja Kyung Yoon, Dai Hoon Han, Sunyoung Lee, Jin-Young Choi, Gi Hong Choi, Do Young Kim, Myeong-Jin Kim
    Cancer Research and Treatment.2023; 55(3): 939.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic Performance of KLCA-NCC 2018 Criteria for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Dong Hwan Kim, Bohyun Kim, Seo Yeon Youn, Hokun Kim, Joon-Il Choi
    Diagnostics.2021; 11(10): 1763.     CrossRef
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Review Article
Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance
So Hyun Park, Bohyun Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2020;20(1):25-31.   Published online March 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.20.1.25
  • 6,118 Views
  • 252 Downloads
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is recommended when the annual incidence of HCC exceeds 1.5%. In 2018, several international guidelines included alternative surveillance modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as alternatives for patients with inadequate surveillance with an ultrasound. Currently, abbreviated MRI selectively includes several key sequences and is emerging as an effective tool for HCC surveillance with reduced cost and scan time and the required diagnostic performance. The incidence of HCC substantially impacts the benefits of surveillance in terms of cost-effectiveness. Therefore, we need to individualize imaging surveillance of HCC, tailor screening, and determine risk-stratified strategies. The purpose of this article was to present a brief overview of the diagnostic performance and cost-effectiveness of liver MRI as an HCC surveillance tool.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Post-International Gastrointestinal Cancers’ Conference (IGICC) Position Statements
    Suayib Yalcin, Sahin Lacin, Ahmed Kaseb, Bora Peynircioğlu, Murat Cantasdemir, Barbaros Çil, Pervin Hurmuz, Ahmet Doğrul, Murat Bozkurt, Hüseyin Abali, Okan Akhan, Halis Şimşek, Berksoy Sahin, Faruk Aykan, İdris Yücel, Gürkan Tellioğlu, Fatih Selçukbirici
    Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.2024; Volume 11: 953.     CrossRef
  • Adding MRI as a Surveillance Test for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis Can Improve Prognosis
    Su Jong Yu, Jeong-Ju Yoo, Dong Ho Lee, Su Jin Kim, Eun Ju Cho, Se Hyung Kim, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, Jeong Min Lee, Jae Young Lee, Jung-Hwan Yoon
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(2): 382.     CrossRef
  • MRI features of histologic subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with histologic, genetic, and molecular biologic classification
    Ja Kyung Yoon, Jin-Young Choi, Hyungjin Rhee, Young Nyun Park
    European Radiology.2022; 32(8): 5119.     CrossRef
  • Imaging features of hepatobiliary MRI and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development
    Jong-In Chang, Dong Hyun Sinn, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Jeong Ah Hwang, Ho Young Won, Kyunga Kim, Wonseok Kang, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung-Woon Paik
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology.2022; 57(12): 1470.     CrossRef
  • Potential of a Non-Contrast-Enhanced Abbreviated MRI Screening Protocol (NC-AMRI) in High-Risk Patients under Surveillance for HCC
    François Willemssen, Quido de Lussanet de la Sablonière, Daniel Bos, Jan IJzermans, Robert De Man, Roy Dwarkasing
    Cancers.2022; 14(16): 3961.     CrossRef
  • Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients diagnosed under regular surveillance: potential implications for surveillance goal
    Joo Hye Song, Myung Ji Goh, Yewan Park, Joo Hyun Oh, Wonseok Kang, Dong Hyun Sinn, Geum-Youn Gwak, Yong-Han Paik, Moon Seok Choi, Joon Hyeok Lee, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung Woon Paik
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology.2021; 56(3): 274.     CrossRef
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Case Reports
A Case of Simultaneous Resection of Recurrent Combined Hepatocellular Cholangiocarcinoma and Hypovascular Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Tae Hyung Kim, Soon Ho Um, Sang Jung Park, Seung Woon Park, Han Ah Lee, Yeon Seok Seo, Young Dong Yu, Dong-Sik Kim, Joo Young Kim
J Liver Cancer. 2017;17(1):94-99.   Published online March 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.17.1.94
  • 1,917 Views
  • 13 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Liver cancer is more complex to treat compared to cancers in other organs, since liver function should be considered. In addition, only a few patients can be applied curative treatment due to advanced stage at diagnosis. Therefore, early stage detection is important and has been increased through screening and surveillance programs using image modalities recently. However, it is still difficult to diagnose small or hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) even using advanced image modalties. In particular, hypovascular HCCs do not show arterial contrast enhancement which is a typical finding of HCC on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Those also account for a considerable portion of early HCC. We present 54 yearsold man who had recurrent hypervascular and hypovascular nodules on three phase CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. The nodules were removed by surgical resection and confirmed as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma and well differentiated HCC respectively.
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Hemangioma Diagnosed by Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced MRI in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C
Jin Won Mo, Soo Hyung Ryu, Dong Won Park, Won Jae Yoon, Jin Nam Kim, Jeong Seop Moon, Jae-Chan Shim
J Liver Cancer. 2015;15(1):36-40.   Published online March 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.15.1.36
  • 1,083 Views
  • 19 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
A hemangioma is the most common benign hepatic tumor. Many hepatic hemangioma tend to be found incidentally, but should be differentiated from malignant tumors, especially in patients with a high risk for malignancy. We presented a 52-year-old woman who diagnosed as hepatic hemangioma. The patient was a chronic alcohol abuser and diagnosed as a hepatic C virus carrier for the first time. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 4cm sized hepatic mass involving both segment 5 and 6. Abdominal CT finding suggested hepatic hemangioma, but could not rule out the malignancy. Because the patient had risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma, abdominal ultrasonography (US) was performed for further evaluation. But abdominal US also showed atypical finding. For the confirmative diagnosis, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging using gadoxetate disodium (primovist®, Bayer HealthCare, Berlin, Germany) which is the innovative liver cell-specific contrast medium was done, and the patient was diagnosed as hepatic hemangioma.
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Original Article
Transarterial Chemoembolization versus Radiofrequency Ablation for Small Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Discrepant Features on Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Young Youn Cho, Jung Hee Kwon, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Jeong Min Lee, Jae Young Lee, Hyo-Choel Kim, Jin Wook Chung, Won-mook Choi, Eun Ju Cho, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Chung Yong Kim, Hyo-Suk Lee
J Liver Cancer. 2015;15(1):19-29.   Published online March 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.15.1.19
  • 1,326 Views
  • 10 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background/Aims
This study compared the outcomes of patients with small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) who were treated using transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA).
Methods
This was a post-hoc analysis of a prospective study that evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). We analyzed 41 small hepatic nodules in 32 patients that showed typical radiologic hallmarks on both CT and gadoxate-enhanced MRI (typical nodules) and 25 small hepatic nodules from 22 patients that showed atypical radiologic hallmarks on CT and typical radiologic hallmarks on MRI (discrepant nodules).
Results
There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the patients with typical and discrepant nodules. Complete response rates 1 month after TACE or RFA were 75.0% (18/24) and 94.1% (16/17; P=0.20), respectively, for the patients with typical nodules and 58.8% (10/17) and 100% (8/8; P=0.05), respectively, for the patients with discrepant nodules. Treatment failure rates after TACE or RFA were 33.3% (8/24) and 5.8% (1/17; P=0.15), respectively, for the patients with typical nodules and 47.0% (8/17) and 0.0% (0/8; P=0.02), respectively, for the patients with discrepant nodules. Among patients achieving complete response, there were no significant differences in the risk of marginal recurrence.
Conclusions
RFA provided higher complete response rates and significantly lower treatment failure rates than TACE for patients with discrepant nodules of HCC. Therefore, a treatment modality such as RFA may be preferable for small HCCs which show discrepancy on two imaging modalities.
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Review Articles
Assessment of Tumor Characteristic with Imaging
Young Kon Kim
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(1):44-47.   Published online February 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.1.44
  • 997 Views
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a strongpoint in the detection and characterization of hepatic tumor as it provides multiparametric information. With active implementation of a surveillance program for high-risk hepatocellular carcinoma patients, early hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma with atypical vascular pattern is being detected with increasing frequency. Therefore, in daily practice, it is challenging to differentiate atypical HCC from dysplastic nodule, hypervascular cholangiocarcinoma and focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules. Gadoxetic acid and diffusion-weighted imaging has opened new horizons for liver MRI with promising results for liver lesion detection and characterization. Combined both has the potential to be robust liver MR protocol in that it is targeting three processes of hepatic carcinogenesis-hemodynamic changes, hepatocyte function, and tissue diffusivity. In that sense, liver MRI has the potency to fulfill the above two-fold requirement in a more satisfactorily than other liver imaging modalities.
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Imaging Technique of Liver MRI
Young Kon Kim
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2012;12(1):1-4.   Published online February 28, 2012
  • 568 Views
  • 7 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides exquisite, versatile, and unique soft tissue contrast, which allows for an effective evaluation of a wide range of liver disorders. A careful selection of imaging strategies can yield a comprehensive assessment of the liver in a reasonable examination time. Recent advances in MR hardware and software allow for rapid acquisition times that can reduce many of motion artifacts that previously posed limitations to abdominal MR imaging. The ability to obtain artifact-free images with sufficient contrast-to-noise ratios across a broad range of techniques is now feasible with rapid scanning. Recently, the use of 3T in liver imaging allows further improvement in image quality.
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Radiology of the Combined HCC and CC
Jin-Young Choi
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2007;7(1):16-21.   Published online June 30, 2007
  • 659 Views
  • 8 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (HCC-CC) is a rare tumor showing histological evidence of both hepatocellular and biliary epithelial differentiation. Because of its rarity, there have been few reports about the imaging findings of this tumor. The CT findings of the combined HCC-CC include well-defined tumor with signs of malignancy such as hepatic hypervascularity, biliary obstruction, satellite nodules, and lymphadenopathy. Some portions may show hypoattenuation on arterial phase, whereas other portions show delayed persistent enhancement. The signal intensity of this tumor on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is not specific. However, when the tumor resembles cholangiocarcinoma on gross pathologic exam, it shows peripheral rim-like enhancement, infiltrative margin, and portal vein invasion in patients with liver cirrhosis. On the other hand, when the tumor has gross appearance of HCC, imaging findings are not helpful for diagnosis. Cross-sectional imagings are helpful for predicting the predominant component of the combined HCC-CC and determining the treatment strategy.
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Differential Diagnosis of Heaptocellular Carcinoma in Radiology
Jeong-Sik Yu
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2003;3(1):21-29.   Published online July 31, 2003
  • 616 Views
  • 3 Downloads
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JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer