Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Articles and issues > Previous issues
13 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Article category
Volume 13(2); September 2013
Prev issue Next issue
Review Articles
Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Kung-Hung Lin, Wei-Lun Tsai Tsai
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):93-104.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.93
  • 682 Views
  • 10 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. HCC is a suitable disease for surveillance programs because it is relatively common in patients with chronic liver disease, and has very good prognosis if diagnosed at an early stage. When HCC presents with clinical symptoms, the tumor is typically very far advanced and the patient has few therapeutic options. Individuals with chronic viral hepatitis and other forms of liver disease are at risk for developing HCC. Thus, screening and surveillance for HCC would appear to be very appropriate. However, there is no definitive evidence that surveillance improves patient outcomes and the current surveillance tests have less than optimal sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Nonetheless, measurement of alpha-fetoprotein levels in serum and ultrasound of the liver have become routine practice in many countries, despite a lack of evidence of their overall benefit. Clearly, better methods are needed for early diagnosis of HCC. This review outlines the target population at risk for HCC and diagnostic techniques for screening and surveillance.
Diagnostic Performance of CT and MRI for Small HCC Less Than 1 cm
Jung Hoon Kim
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):105-113.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.105
  • 714 Views
  • 7 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. Worldwide, the surveillance program of HCC is well-established for the patients with high risk. The early stage of HCC has the highest likelihood for cure. It is therefore important to make the early diagnosis of HCC. The imaging criteria for the diagnosis of HCC have established detailing the characteristic enhancement pattern of HCC including hypervascularity in the arterial phase and washout in the portal or delayed phase of dynamic imaging. However, in the current practical guidelines, there are controversies for HCC smaller than 1 cm in size because of the low sensitivity of CT and MR for HCC smaller than 1 cm in size. Recent advances in CT and MR hardware and software allow for rapid acquisition times that can reduce many of motion artifacts. Furthermore, recently introduced hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agents have showed its superior efficacy in both detection and characterization of small focal liver lesion by providing both dynamic imaging and hepatobiliary phase imaging. So, we reviewed the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for HCC smaller than 1 cm in size. In addition, we introduced our experience for HCC smaller than 1 cm in size.
Role of Radiation Therapy as an Ablative Modality for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hee Chul Park
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):114-122.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.114
  • 693 Views
  • 3 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Before the introduction of radiation therapy (RT) in the clinical management guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), radiation was used not very frequently in the course of HCC management. According to the “Practice guidelines for management of HCC 2009” published by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea, RT can be used for HCC with portal vein tumor thrombosis and can be effective to relieve the symptoms caused by HCC and its metastases once the RT is believed safe in terms of radiobiological considerations. The introduction of RT in the Korean HCC management guideline did the pivotal role in accentuating research efforts to enlighten the role of RT in HCC management. Recently, the application of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR), an extra-cranial version of radiosurgery such as Gamma-knife, is tested as an ablative modality for HCC. There are already some published prospective series to test SABR for HCC. In Korea, there is a prospective trial published by Korea Cancer Center Hospital. A multicenter prospective trial (KROG 12-02) is on-going as a Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) study and already 26 patients were accrued to the target number of 54 patients. In this review, the background, rationale and the discussion points in the application of SABR as an ablative modality for HCC will be covered. And the experience of hypofractionated ablative RT for small size HCC less than 3 cm by the author will be introduced.
Original Articles
Epidemiologic Changes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A 10-year Single Center Experience in Gangneung, Korea
Young Don Kim, Woo Sung Jang, Jang Hoon Kwon, Jong Sam Hong, Gab Jin Cheon
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):123-129.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.123
  • 751 Views
  • 13 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
/Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common cause of liver related death in Korea, and the importance of alcohol as an etiology of chronic liver disease including cirrhosis is emphasized recently. We investigated the epidemiologic changes of HCC during last 10 years in single tertiary center in Gangneung, Korea.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of admitted patients diagnosed as HCC in year 2002 and 2012 respectively, and their clinical characteristics were compared.
Results
A total of 214 patients were enrolled. Mean age was 60.1 years and 179 (83.6%) was male. Number of patient with cirrhosis was 160 (74.8%) and with viral hepatitis was 164 (74.8%). Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) was the most common cause of HCC patients with liver cirrhosis (61.9%), and alcohol was 14.4%. The possible curative group (by BCLC stage 0 or A) was only 36.4% (n=78), and had not decreased during the study periods (36.3 % vs. 36.6%, P=0.144), and other clinical variables also had no statistical differences.
Conclusions
The clinical characteristics of HCC including clinical stage at the time of diagnosis were not changed over the last 10 year period, and CHB was still the most common etiology of HCC in Gangneung, Korea.
Occurrence Rates of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Adefovir-rescue Therapy for Lamivudine-Resistant Chronic Hepatitis B
Jihyun Kim, Sae Hwan Lee, Kanghyug Choi, Yun Nah Lee, Soung won Jeong, Sang Gyune Kim, Jae Young Jang, Young Seok Kim, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):130-135.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.130
  • 728 Views
  • 4 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
/Aims: Suboptimal virological response to adefovir (ADV) rescue therapy was commonly experienced in patient with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study is to compare occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of patients with adefovir rescue therapy to naïve patients with entecavir.
Methods
Electronic medical records of 156 patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B who treated with ADV and of 186 naïve-patients who received entecavir 0.5 mg, as control group, were reviewed retrospectively. Study subjects were matched using estimated propensity score and 107 matched subjects in each group were analyzed. Cumulative occurrence of HCC was evaluated during antiviral therapy and the association between clinical variables and development of HCC were analyzed using Kaplan-Meyer curve and risk factor for HCC was evaluated with Cox-proportional hazard model.
Results
Age, gender, Child-Pugh score, underlying cirrhosis, HBeAg, and HBV DNA level were not different in both groups, except treatment duration with ADV or entecavir (mean 52.6±17.5 vs 46.7±11.4 months, P=0.004). Cumulative virological response rates were 16% and 42% in patient with ADV rescue therapy and 68% and 85% in naïve-patients received entecavir at 1 and 3 years (P<0.001), respectively. HCC were diagnosed in 6 of 107 patients with lamivudine-resistance and 9 of 107 naïve-patients during follow-period and cumulative occurrence rates of HCC was not different between both group (P=0.308). Cumulative occurrence rates of HCC in total 214 subjects were 2.3%, 4.8%, and 9.6% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Age, underlying cirrhosis, and baseline HBV DNA level were associated with the occurrence of HCC, however gender, HBeAg status, ADV rescue therapy, and cumulative virological response were not correlated in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, age (P=0.008) and underlying cirrhosis (P=0.002) were independent risk factors for occurrence of HCC.
Conclusions
Long-term ADV rescue therapy in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B did not increase the occurrence rates of HCC.
The Comparison of Overall Survival between Child C with Early Stage HCC and Child A with Advanced Stage HCC
Eui Ju Park, Jae Young Jang, Soung Won Jeong, Jin Woo Choo, Jin Nyoung Kim, Soon Ha Kwon, Byoung Moo Lee, Sae Hwan Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Sang-Woo Cha, Young Seok Kim, Young Deok Cho, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):136-144.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.136
  • 668 Views
  • 3 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
/Aims: The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is affected by stage as well as liver function. We analyzed the survival outcome of early stage HCC in Child class C patients and advanced HCC in Child class A patients.
Methods
Among 453 HCC patients with good performance status, Group A included 33 consecutive Child class C patients with early stage (I, II) HCC, and Group B included 45 consecutive Child class A patients with advanced stage (III, IV) HCC. We investigated the clinical characteristics, cirrhotic complications, and prognostic factors related with survival in each group, and compared overall survival between two groups.
Results
Age, prothrombin time, total bilirubin and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were significantly higher in Group A. Male sex, platelet count, albumin, sodium (Na), hepatitis B virus, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and portal vein thrombosis were significantly higher in Group B. Complications of cirrhosis such as variceal bleeding, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy were increased in Group A (P<0.05). Patients with an elevated AFP (>400 ng/mL) tended to exhibit poor survival as it increased in Group A (P=0.084). MELD scores>15 (Hazard ratio[HR] 17.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.70-85.93, P<0.001), stage IV (HR:3.27, 95% CI 1.10-9.75, P=0.033), and absence of HCC treatment (HR: 3.70, 95% CI 1.06-12.50, P=0.040) were independent poor prognostic factors in Group B. Median overall survival was 24.6 months (95% CI 10.6-38.4) for Group A and 13.5 months (95% CI 4.6-22.3) for Group B (P=0.278). In the HCC treatment group, there were no significant differences of median overall survival between Group A and Group B, respectively (27.1 vs. 15.7 months, P=0.338). In patients with conservative treatment, Group A and Group B had a significantly different median overall survival of 13.6 and 2.5 months, respectively (P=0.012). In patients of Group B, median overall survival was significantly higher in patients who received treatment of HCC compared to those who did not, respectively (15.7 vs. 2.5 months, P<0.001).
Conclusions
Overall median survival was not different between both groups. However, in Child class A patients with advanced stage HCCs, the cumulative median survival was higher in patients who received treatment of HCC compared to those who did not. Therefore, advanced stage HCC patients with good liver function should be considered for HCC treatments.
Case Reports
Two Cases of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Developed Right after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Jung Hoon Lee, Joo Hyun Sohn, Tae Yeob Kim, Ji Young Lee, Ki Sul Chang, Dong Hoon Lee, Eun Sik Park
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):145-151.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.145
  • 875 Views
  • 5 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Although acute hepatic failure (AHF) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not a rare complication, the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is uncommon. We describe two cases who suffered SBP and AHF right after TACE for HCCs. In the first case, 5 days after TACE ascites and jaundice newly developed and SBP was diagnosed at 9 days after TACE. After use of secondary antibiotics (imipenam) due to failure of primary therapy with 3rd cephalosporin, he discharged with resolution of SBP. In the second case, jaundice, abdominal pain and fever developed with increased ascites 3 days after TACE. After 8 days, SBP was diagnosed and treated with imipenam due to primary treatment failure, but clinical course was deteriorated. Eighteen days after discharge, she died of AHF. In patients with increased ascites and fever after TACE, clinician should be considered SBP with AHF among post-TACE complications, and prompt management is needed.
A Case of Partial Response of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Induced by Concurrent Chemoradiation and Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy after Trans-Arterial Chemoembolization
Myung Eun Song, Sangheun Lee, Mi Na Kim, Dong-Jun Lee, Beom Kyung Kim, Seung Up Kim, Jun Yong Park, Sang Hoon Ahn, Chae Yoon Chon, Kwang-Hyub Han, Jinsil Seong, Do Young Kim
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):152-157.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.152
  • 677 Views
  • 5 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
A 63-year-old man patient was referred for treatment of infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma with hilar invasion after transarterial chemoembolization. Serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin were elevated, liver dynamic CT showed infiltrative type mass in left hepatic lobe and right hepatic dome with hilar invasion and left intrahepatic duct dilatation. Also CT showed obliteration of left portal vein and metastasis of lymph node around common bile duct. He was diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (UICC stage IV-A, BCLC stage C). With the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and the concurrent chemoradiation therapy and the 4th cycle of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for infiltrative mass, viable tumor was decreased in resectable size at eight months from initial diagnosis.
A Case of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Bile Duct Invasion Treated with Transarterial Chemoembolization
Hee Yeon Kim, Chang Wook Kim, Chang Don Lee, Soo Lim Lee, Yoo Dong Won, Ye Il Kim
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):158-163.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.158
  • 710 Views
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A 53-year-old female patient visited our hospital complaining of intermittent right upper quadrant pain for 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an irregular shaped tumor at segment 4 of the liver with biliary tumor thrombi extending into the common bile duct. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was done for decompression of bile duct dilatation. The patient underwent 6 sessions of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Partial response was obtained shortly after TACE. However, regrowth of intraductal tumor resulted in an obstructive jaundice. After a slight decompression of the obstructive jaundice, the patient underwent TACE. Jaundice temporarily worsened following the TACE, but improved, and follow-up CT demonstrated some shrinkage of the intraductal mass. This case indicates that obstructive-type jaundice may not be a contraindication for TACE, and aggressive TACE may improve prognoses of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and biliary tumor thrombi.
A Case of Primary Parasternal Abscess in a Cirrhotic and Diabetic Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Ji Young Lee, Joo Hyun Sohn, Tae Yeob Kim, Jung Hoon Lee, Ki Sul Chang, Hye Young Lee, Hyo Young Lee
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):164-168.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.164
  • 668 Views
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Parasternal abscess is usually related to cardiac surgery, trauma or IV drug use and curable with antibiotics and surgical drainage. Sternal metastasis or primary parasternal abscess in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is much rare and the differentiation between two diseases is occasionally difficult. Herein, we report a patient with HCC, diabetes mellitus and a spontaneously occurred parasternal abscess that is initially confused with a sternal metastasis. A-57-year-old man was admitted due to a slowly growing parasternal mass for 2 months. Two years prior to the admission, he had been diagnosed with small (1.6 cm) HCC in segment VII related to chronic hepatitis Band liver cirrhosis and treated with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). One year after RFTA, small (1.7 cm) HCC recurred in segment I and then he received TACE twiceat interval of 2 months. Eight months after that, multinodular HCCs newly developed in segment V and VIII (TNM stage IIIA) and two times of additional TACE were given. Thereafter he complained of gradually protruding mass with focal redness and mild tenderness on the sternum. But he denied any febrile and chilling sensation. Dynamic CT scans showed an enhanced parasternal lesion with bone destruction, while a bone scan displayed an increased uptake in the same site, resulting in an indistinguishable lesion between an abscess and a sternal metastasis of HCC. An excisional biopsy was performed on the lesion and revealed an abscess with sternal osteomyelitis rather than sternal metastasis. It was cured with surgical excision and antibiotics without complications.
A Case of the Effective Treatment of HCC with Bile Duct Invasion and Portal Vein Thrombosis
Jihyun An, Danbi Lee, Ju Hyun Shim, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Han Chu Lee, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):169-172.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.169
  • 758 Views
  • 2 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Bile duct invasion of hepatocellular caricinoma (HCC) is rare, ranging from 1.2% to 9%. Moreover, the standard treatment of HCC with bile duct invasion is not yet established. We report a case of HCC with bile duct invasion and portal vein thrombosis which was successfully treated by trasarterial chemoembolization and radiotherapy. A 38-year-old female patient visited our hospital due to right upper quadrant pain. The level of total and direct bilirubin was 6.8 and 4.0 mg/dL, respectively. Her blood test showed HBs Ag positive and the level of alpha-fetoprotein was 43,000 ng/mL. Her CT scan revealed lobulating hypervascular mass involving right hepatic lobe, portal vein and both intrahepatic ducts. We performed endoscopic biliary drainage using biliary stent. She had been diagnosed as HCC on endobiliary biopsy. She was treated with radiotherapy (RT) to portal vein thrombosis, and seven transarterial chemoembolizations. After of all, we carried out radiotherapy to hepatic vein thrombosis and residual HCC near hepatic vein. After the RT, she has been taken care at outpatient clinic without evidence of recurrence during 8 months.
Bronchobiliary Fistula after Transarterial Chemoembolization and Radiotherapyfor Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Bile Duct Invasion
Jungran Choi, Yoomi Park, Kwangwon Rhee, Daewon Ma, Ja Kyung Kim, Jung Il Lee, Kwan Sik Lee, Kwang-Hun Lee, Seokjin Haam
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):173-177.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.173
  • 648 Views
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is widely used in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its common complications are right upper quadrant pain, nausea, vomiting, whereas some rare complications include focal pancreatic necrosis, gastric ulcer, renal failure, DIC, biliary tree necrosis and splenic infarction. Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare complication that consists of the formation of a passageway between the biliary system and the bronchial tree. We report a case of BBF due to previous TACE for HCC.
A Case of Hypovascular Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invading Bile Duct with Partial Remission with Combination Therapy of Transarterial Chemoembolization and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Sorafenib
Sang Youn Hwang, Seon-Mi Lee, Jung Woo Im, Joon Suk Kim, Sang Bu Ahn, Eun Kyeong Ji, Chul Won Choi, Gwang-Mo Yang
Journal of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group. 2013;13(2):178-184.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17998/jlc.13.2.178
  • 657 Views
  • 2 Downloads
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with bile duct invasion have a poor prognosis because many do not receive effective treatment. Surgical resection is thought to be only option of curative treatment, increasing chance of survival, but it is possible to minor group of patients because of poor reserved liver function associated with underlying liver disease and obstructive jaundice. Therefore many clinicians or centers still select locoregional therapy such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), radiation therapy (RT) etc. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is new technology providing very highly conformal ablative radiation dose for a small numbers (1-5 fractions) of large fraction size and is expected to salvage modality for HCC showed incomplete response of TACE due to vascularity or accessibility of feeding artery. Based on above suggestions, we herein offer our experience of a patient with partial remission of tumor by combination therapy of TACE, SBRT and sorafenib. Further study, maybe regarding a combination of locoregional and systemic therapy (so called multidisciplinary approach), is necessary on how to manage HCC patients with bile duct invasion or sparse vascularity.

JLC : Journal of Liver Cancer